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      Creatinine Clearance but Not Serum Creatinine Alone Predicts Long-Term Postoperative Survival after Lower Extremity Revascularization

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          Abstract

          Background: Renal insufficiency is a well-described risk factor for perioperative morbidity and shortened survival after major vascular procedures. Due to the potential inaccuracy of serum creatinine levels alone in measuring kidney function, our aim was to determine whether estimated creatinine clearance more consistently predicted long-term survival. Methods: A retrospective review of one institution’s vascular registry was performed. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to determine independent predictors of 1-, 2- and 3-year postoperative mortality. Creatinine clearance was estimated as [140 – age (years)] × weight (kg)/72 × serum creatinine (mg/dl), multiplied by 0.85 for women. Results: A total of 252 consecutive patients underwent infrainguinal bypass procedures between August 1999 and May 2000. Demographics included average age 68 years, 65% male, 74% diabetic, 12% dialysis-dependent, 23% history of congestive heart failure, 12% history of stroke and 20% serum creatinine >2 mg/dl. One-year mortality was 16% (n = 40), 2-year mortality was 25% (n = 64), and 3-year mortality was 35% (n = 88). There was no difference in serum creatinine values between survivors and non-survivors at 1 year (1.8 vs. 1.9, p = 0.80), 2 years (1.8 vs. 2.0, p = 0.62) or 3 years (1.8 vs. 2.0, p = 0.24), and creatinine >2 mg/dl did not predict long-term adverse outcomes. In contrast, reduced creatinine clearance (≤60 ml/min) was an independent predictor of mortality regardless of dialysis status (1 year: OR = 2.53, p = 0.014; 2 years: OR = 2.46, p = 0.004; 3 years: OR = 2.45, p = 0.001), and creatinine clearance was higher for survivors versus non-survivors at all 3 time points (1 year: 70.2 vs. 49.5, p = 0.003; 2 years: 72.3 vs. 51.2, p < 0.0001; 3 years: 74.7 vs. 52.6, p < 0.0001). Other independent predictors of mortality included a history of stroke (1 year: OR = 3.28, p = 0.008; 2 years: OR = 2.55, p = 0.025; 3 years: OR = 2.35, p = 0.038) and congestive heart failure (1 year: OR = 2.86, p = 0.006; 2 years: OR = 2.54, p = 0.005; 3 years: OR = 2.13, p = 0.017). Conclusions: Independent of dialysis status, a decreased creatinine clearance, but not elevated serum creatinine alone, is an independent predictor of mortality after lower extremity arterial reconstruction. Determination of creatinine clearance should replace serum creatinine in the preoperative risk evaluations of patients undergoing major vascular surgical procedures.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Renal insufficiency and heart failure: prognostic and therapeutic implications from a prospective cohort study.

          The prevalence, prognostic import, and impact of renal insufficiency on the benefits of ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers in community-dwelling patients with heart failure are uncertain. We analyzed data from a prospective cohort of 754 patients with heart failure who had ejection fraction, serum creatinine, and weight measured at baseline. Median age was 69 years, and 43% had an ejection fraction > or =35%. By the Cockcroft-Gault equation, 118 patients (16%) had creatinine clearances or =60 mL/min, although these drugs were used less frequently in patients with renal insufficiency. Renal insufficiency is more prevalent in patients with heart failure than previously reported and is an independent prognostic factor in diastolic and systolic dysfunction. ACE inhibitors and beta-blockers were associated with similar reductions in mortality in patients with and without renal insufficiency.
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            The impact of renal insufficiency on clinical outcomes in patients undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions.

            We sought to determine the effect of varying degrees of renal insufficiency on death and cardiac events during and after a percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Patients with end-stage renal disease have a high mortality from coronary artery disease. Little is known about the impact of mild and moderate renal insufficiency on clinical outcomes after PCI. Cardiac mortality and all-cause mortality were determined for 5,327 patients undergoing PCI from January 1, 1994, to August 31, 1999, at the Mayo Clinic, based on the estimated creatinine clearance or whether the patient was on dialysis. In-hospital mortality was significantly associated with renal insufficiency (p = 0.001). Even after successful PCI, one-year mortality was 1.5% when the creatinine clearance was > or =70 ml/min (n = 2,558), 3.6% when it was 50 to 69 ml/min (n = 1,458), 7.8% when it was 30 to 49 ml/min (n = 828) and 18.3% when it was < 30 ml/min (n = 141). The 18.3% mortality rate for the group with < 30 ml/min creatinine clearance was similar to the 19.9% mortality rate in patients on dialysis (n = 46). The mortality risk was largely independent of all other factors. Renal insufficiency is a strong predictor of death and subsequent cardiac events in a dose-dependent fashion during and after PCI. Patients with renal insufficiency have more baseline cardiovascular risk factors, but renal insufficiency is associated with an increased risk of death and other adverse cardiovascular events, independent of all other measured variables.
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              Prognostic implications of abnormalities in renal function in patients with acute coronary syndromes.

              Outcomes in patients with mild to moderate renal function (RF) abnormalities presenting with acute coronary syndromes (ACS) are not well defined. A convenience sample of 4 ACS trial databases including all enrolled patients was assessed to determine 30- and 180-day outcomes. The 4 trials were Global Use of Strategies to Open Occluded Coronary Arteries (GUSTO) IIb, GUSTO-III, Platelet Glycoprotein IIb/IIIa in Unstable Angina: Receptor Suppression Using Integrilin Therapy (PURSUIT), and Platelet IIb/IIIa Antagonism for the Reduction of Acute coronary syndrome events in a Global Organization Network (PARAGON-A). Patients were stratified into ST-segment elevation (STE) and non-ST-segment elevation (NSE) groups and by the presence or absence of abnormal RF (creatinine clearance <70 mL/min). In the STE group, 7670 of 18 621 patients (41%) had abnormal RF. In the NSE group, 8152 of 19 304 (42%) had abnormal RF. Patients with abnormal RF were older, more often female, and more likely to have adverse baseline characteristics. They had higher mortality and higher mortality/nonfatal myocardial infarction (MI) at both 30 and 180 days, regardless of ST-segment status. Creatinine clearance was independently associated with risk of mortality (hazard ratio 0.79 in the STE group and 0.81 in the NSE group) and with risk of mortality/MI (hazard ratio 0.93) in the NSE group at 180 days. Patients presenting with ACS frequently have abnormal RF. Abnormal RF is a marker of adverse baseline clinical characteristics and is independently associated with increased risk of death and death/MI.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                January 2007
                19 January 2007
                : 26
                : 6
                : 612-620
                Affiliations
                Divisions of aVascular Surgery and bNephrology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                98150 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:612–620
                10.1159/000098150
                17183190
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 4, References: 35, Pages: 9
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/98150
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

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