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      Zinc vacancy-promoted photocatalytic activity and photostability of ZnS for efficient visible-light-driven hydrogen evolution

      , , , , ,
      Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
      Elsevier BV

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          Semiconductor-based photocatalytic hydrogen generation.

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            Recent advances in transition metal phosphide nanomaterials: synthesis and applications in hydrogen evolution reaction.

            The urgent need of clean and renewable energy drives the exploration of effective strategies to produce molecular hydrogen. With the assistance of highly active non-noble metal electrocatalysts, electrolysis of water is becoming a promising candidate to generate pure hydrogen with low cost and high efficiency. Very recently, transition metal phosphides (TMPs) have been proven to be high performance catalysts with high activity, high stability, and nearly ∼100% Faradic efficiency in not only strong acidic solutions, but also in strong alkaline and neutral media for electrochemical hydrogen evolution. In this tutorial review, an overview of recent development of TMP nanomaterials as catalysts for hydrogen generation with high activity and stability is presented. The effects of phosphorus (P) on HER activity, and their synthetic methods of TMPs are briefly discussed. Then we will demonstrate the specific strategies to further improve the catalytic efficiency and stability of TMPs by structural engineering. Making use of TMPs as cocatalysts and catalysts in photochemical and photoelectrochemical water splitting is also discussed. Finally, some key challenges and issues which should not be ignored during the rapid development of TMPs are pointed out. These strategies and challenges of TMPs are instructive for designing other high-performance non-noble metal catalysts.
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              Earth-abundant cocatalysts for semiconductor-based photocatalytic water splitting.

              Photocatalytic water splitting represents a promising strategy for clean, low-cost, and environmental-friendly production of H2 by utilizing solar energy. There are three crucial steps for the photocatalytic water splitting reaction: solar light harvesting, charge separation and transportation, and the catalytic H2 and O2 evolution reactions. While significant achievement has been made in optimizing the first two steps in the photocatalytic process, much less efforts have been put into improving the efficiency of the third step, which demands the utilization of cocatalysts. To date, cocatalysts based on rare and expensive noble metals are still required for achieving reasonable activity in most semiconductor-based photocatalytic systems, which seriously restricts their large-scale application. Therefore, seeking cheap, earth-abundant and high-performance cocatalysts is indispensable to achieve cost-effective and highly efficient photocatalytic water splitting. This review for the first time summarizes all the developed earth-abundant cocatalysts for photocatalytic H2- and O2-production half reactions as well as overall water splitting. The roles and functional mechanism of the cocatalysts are discussed in detail. Finally, this review is concluded with a summary, and remarks on some challenges and perspectives in this emerging area of research.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
                Applied Catalysis B: Environmental
                Elsevier BV
                09263373
                February 2018
                February 2018
                : 221
                : 302-311
                Article
                10.1016/j.apcatb.2017.09.006
                d601cfa4-fed8-45a7-9cd0-9c7d133a4798
                © 2018

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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