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      Molecular Mechanisms Responsible for Therapeutic Potential of Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Derived Secretome

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          Abstract

          Mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-sourced secretome, defined as the set of MSC-derived bioactive factors (soluble proteins, nucleic acids, lipids and extracellular vesicles), showed therapeutic effects similar to those observed after transplantation of MSCs. MSC-derived secretome may bypass many side effects of MSC-based therapy, including unwanted differentiation of engrafted MSCs. In contrast to MSCs which had to be expanded in culture to reach optimal cell number for transplantation, MSC-sourced secretome is immediately available for treatment of acute conditions, including fulminant hepatitis, cerebral ischemia and myocardial infarction. Additionally, MSC-derived secretome could be massively produced from commercially available cell lines avoiding invasive cell collection procedure. In this review article we emphasized molecular and cellular mechanisms that were responsible for beneficial effects of MSC-derived secretomes in the treatment of degenerative and inflammatory diseases of hepatobiliary, respiratory, musculoskeletal, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and nervous system. Results obtained in a large number of studies suggested that administration of MSC-derived secretomes represents a new, cell-free therapeutic approach for attenuation of inflammatory and degenerative diseases. Therapeutic effects of MSC-sourced secretomes relied on their capacity to deliver genetic material, growth and immunomodulatory factors to the target cells enabling activation of anti-apoptotic and pro-survival pathways that resulted in tissue repair and regeneration.

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          Most cited references 149

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          Human bone marrow stromal cells suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli.

          CD2(+) T lymphocytes obtained from either the donor of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) or a third party were cultured in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLRs) with either allogeneic dendritic cells (DCs) or peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs). When autologous or allogeneic BMSCs were added back to T cells stimulated by DCs or PBLs, a significant and dose-dependent reduction of T-cell proliferation, ranging from 60% +/- 5% to 98% +/- 1%, was evident. Similarly, addition of BMSCs to T cells stimulated by polyclonal activators resulted in a 65% +/- 5% (P =.0001) suppression of proliferation. BMSC- induced T-cell suppression was still evident when BMSCs were added in culture as late as 5 days after starting of MLRs. BMSC-inhibited T lymphocytes were not apoptotic and efficiently proliferated on restimulation. BMSCs significantly suppressed both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells (65% +/- 5%, [P =.0005] and 75% +/- 15% [P =.0005], respectively). Transwell experiments, in which cell-cell contact between BMSCs and effector cells was prevented, resulted in a significant inhibition of T-lymphocyte proliferation, suggesting that soluble factors were involved in this phenomenon. By using neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, transforming growth factor beta1 and hepatocyte growth factor were identified as the mediators of BMSC effects. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that (1) autologous or allogeneic BMSCs strongly suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation, (2) this phenomenon that is triggered by both cellular as well as nonspecific mitogenic stimuli has no immunologic restriction, and (3) T-cell inhibition is not due to induction of apoptosis and is likely due to the production of soluble factors.
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            Exosome secreted by MSC reduces myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury.

            Human ESC-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-conditioned medium (CM) was previously shown to mediate cardioprotection during myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury through large complexes of 50-100 nm. Here we show that these MSCs secreted 50- to 100-nm particles. These particles could be visualized by electron microscopy and were shown to be phospholipid vesicles consisting of cholesterol, sphingomyelin, and phosphatidylcholine. They contained coimmunoprecipitating exosome-associated proteins, e.g., CD81, CD9, and Alix. These particles were purified as a homogeneous population of particles with a hydrodynamic radius of 55-65 nm by size-exclusion fractionation on a HPLC. Together these observations indicated that these particles are exosomes. These purified exosomes reduced infarct size in a mouse model of myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury. Therefore, MSC mediated its cardioprotective paracrine effect by secreting exosomes. This novel role of exosomes highlights a new perspective into intercellular mediation of tissue injury and repair, and engenders novel approaches to the development of biologics for tissue repair. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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              Regulation of immune responses by prostaglandin E2.

              PGE(2), an essential homeostatic factor, is also a key mediator of immunopathology in chronic infections and cancer. The impact of PGE(2) reflects the balance between its cyclooxygenase 2-regulated synthesis and 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase-driven degradation and the pattern of expression of PGE(2) receptors. PGE(2) enhances its own production but suppresses acute inflammatory mediators, resulting in its predominance at late/chronic stages of immunity. PGE(2) supports activation of dendritic cells but suppresses their ability to attract naive, memory, and effector T cells. PGE(2) selectively suppresses effector functions of macrophages and neutrophils and the Th1-, CTL-, and NK cell-mediated type 1 immunity, but it promotes Th2, Th17, and regulatory T cell responses. PGE(2) modulates chemokine production, inhibiting the attraction of proinflammatory cells while enhancing local accumulation of regulatory T cells cells and myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Targeting the production, degradation, and responsiveness to PGE(2) provides tools to modulate the patterns of immunity in a wide range of diseases, from autoimmunity to cancer.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cells
                Cells
                cells
                Cells
                MDPI
                2073-4409
                16 May 2019
                May 2019
                : 8
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Regenerative Processing Plant, LLC, Palm Harbor, FL 34176, USA; dr.harrell@ 123456regenerativeplant.org (C.R.H.); crissy@ 123456regenerativeplant.org (C.F.)
                [2 ]Department for Microbiology and Immunology, Center for Molecular Medicine and Stem Cell Research, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, 69 Svetozara Markovica Street, 34000 Kragujevac, Serbia; nemanjajovicic.kg@ 123456gmail.com (N.J.); arne@ 123456medf.kg.ac.rs (N.A.)
                [3 ]Institute of Anatomy, University of Bern, Baltzerstrasse 2, 3012 Bern, Switzerland; valentin.djonov@ 123456ana.unibe.ch
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: drvolarevic@ 123456yahoo.com ; Tel.: +38134306800
                Article
                cells-08-00467
                10.3390/cells8050467
                6562906
                31100966
                © 2019 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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