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      More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis


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          COVID-19 can involve persistence, sequelae, and other medical complications that last weeks to months after initial recovery. This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to identify studies assessing the long-term effects of COVID-19. LitCOVID and Embase were searched to identify articles with original data published before the 1st of January 2021, with a minimum of 100 patients. For effects reported in two or more studies, meta-analyses using a random-effects model were performed using the MetaXL software to estimate the pooled prevalence with 95% CI. PRISMA guidelines were followed. A total of 18,251 publications were identified, of which 15 met the inclusion criteria. The prevalence of 55 long-term effects was estimated, 21 meta-analyses were performed, and 47,910 patients were included (age 17–87 years). The included studies defined long-COVID as ranging from 14 to 110 days post-viral infection. It was estimated that 80% of the infected patients with SARS-CoV-2 developed one or more long-term symptoms. The five most common symptoms were fatigue (58%), headache (44%), attention disorder (27%), hair loss (25%), and dyspnea (24%). Multi-disciplinary teams are crucial to developing preventive measures, rehabilitation techniques, and clinical management strategies with whole-patient perspectives designed to address long COVID-19 care.

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement

          Systematic reviews should build on a protocol that describes the rationale, hypothesis, and planned methods of the review; few reviews report whether a protocol exists. Detailed, well-described protocols can facilitate the understanding and appraisal of the review methods, as well as the detection of modifications to methods and selective reporting in completed reviews. We describe the development of a reporting guideline, the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses for Protocols 2015 (PRISMA-P 2015). PRISMA-P consists of a 17-item checklist intended to facilitate the preparation and reporting of a robust protocol for the systematic review. Funders and those commissioning reviews might consider mandating the use of the checklist to facilitate the submission of relevant protocol information in funding applications. Similarly, peer reviewers and editors can use the guidance to gauge the completeness and transparency of a systematic review protocol submitted for publication in a journal or other medium.
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            Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015: elaboration and explanation

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              Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19

              This case series describes COVID-19 symptoms persisting a mean of 60 days after onset among Italian patients previously discharged from COVID-19 hospitalization.

                Author and article information

                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                9 August 2021
                9 August 2021
                : 11
                : 16144
                [1 ]GRID grid.418424.f, ISNI 0000 0004 0439 2056, Drug Development, , Novartis Pharmaceuticals, ; Florham Park, NJ USA
                [2 ]GRID grid.419167.c, ISNI 0000 0004 1777 1207, Instituto Nacional de Cancerología, Subdirección de Investigación Básica, ; Mexico City, Mexico
                [3 ]GRID grid.9486.3, ISNI 0000 0001 2159 0001, National Autonomous University of Mexico, SOMEDICyT, RedMPC, ; Mexico City, Mexico
                [4 ]GRID grid.38142.3c, ISNI 000000041936754X, Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health, ; Boston, MA USA
                [5 ]GRID grid.189967.8, ISNI 0000 0001 0941 6502, Divison of Infectious Diseases, , Emory University School of Medicine, ; Atlanta, GA USA
                [6 ]GRID grid.189967.8, ISNI 0000 0001 0941 6502, Hubert Department of Global Health, Rollins School of Public Health, , Emory University, ; Atlanta, GA USA
                [7 ]GRID grid.4714.6, ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, Center for Infectious Medicine, Department of Medicine Huddinge, , Karolinska Institutet, ; Stockholm, Sweden
                [8 ]GRID grid.63368.38, ISNI 0000 0004 0445 0041, Department of Neurosurgery, Center for Neuroregeneration, , Houston Methodist Research Institute, ; 6670 Bertnet Avenue, Houston, TX 77030 USA
                [9 ]GRID grid.5386.8, ISNI 000000041936877X, Department of Neuroscience in Neurological Surgery, , Weill Cornell Medical College, ; New York, USA
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 17 March 2021
                : 20 July 2021
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/100015581, Houston Methodist Research Institute;
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                © The Author(s) 2021

                health care,neurology,signs and symptoms
                health care, neurology, signs and symptoms


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