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      Risk factors associated with hemoglobin levels and nutritional status among Brazilian children attending daycare centers in Sao Paulo city, Brazil Translated title: Factores de riesgo asociados al nivel de hemoglobina y estado nutricional de niños que asisten a Jardines de la Infancia en el Municipio de Sao Paulo, Brasil

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          Abstract

          Like many other developing countries, Brazil has been going a nutritional transition which presence both malnutrition and overweight. Stunting and overweight are the major public health problems in Brazilian children. The objective of this study was to document the prevalence of stunting, overweight and anemia in preschool children and examine if those nutritional problems are related; also identify if these nutritional problems have the same risk factors. Data from the “Efficient Daycare Center Project” which include 270 children attending nurseries of eight daycare centers in Sao Paulo city, Brazil were used for this study. Data on height and weight were converted to z-scores using WHO anthro software. Hemoglobin (Hb) concentrations were determined on finger-prick blood samples. The co-occurrence of stunting, overweight and anemia was investigated by contingency tables a log-linear model. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were performed to estimate the association of HAZ, WAZ, WHZ and Hb levels with their risk factors. The results showed high prevalence of overweight (22.2%), risk of stunting (22.6%) and anemia (37%). Percent of daycare attendance, age, number of siblings under 5 years old and per capita income are associated with Hb levels. This study provides evidence that Brazil is going through a nutritional transition and suggest that the adoption of public policies to expand and improve services in daycare centers may help to prevent multi-nutritional problems in preschool children.

          Translated abstract

          Como muchos otros países en desenvolvimiento Brasil esta pasando por la transición nutricional, la cual tiene presente a la desnutrición y sobrepeso. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo mostrar la prevalencia de baja estatura, sobrepeso y anemia en niños en edad preescolar y analizar si esos problemas nutricionales están relacionados; también identificar si esos problemas nutricionales presentan los mismos factores de riesgo. Fueron utilizados datos del “Proyecto CrechEficiente” el cual estudio 270 niños que asisten a cunas de ocho jardines de la infancia en la ciudad de Sao Paulo, Brasil. Los datos de peso y estatura fueron convertidos en z-escore utilizando el software WHO Anthro. La extracción de sangre para la determinación de hemoglobina (Hb) se realizó por punción digital. La co-ocurrencia de baja estatura, sobrepeso y anemia fue investigada a tráves de tablas de contingencia y modelo log-linear. Fueron realizados análisis univariados y regresión múltiple para determinar la asociación entre TEZ, PEZ, PTZ y niveles de hemoglobina con sus factores de riesgo. Los resultados mostraran elevada prevalencia de sobrepeso (22,2%), riesgo para baja estatura (22,6%) y anemia (37%). El porcentaje de frecuencia a los jardines infantiles, edad, número de hermanos menores de 5 años y renta per cápita están asociados con los niveles de hemoglobina. Este estudio muestra evidencia de que el Brasil esta pasando por una transición nutricional y sugiere adopción de políticas públicas para difundir y mejorar los servicios de los jardines infantiles pudiendo ayudar a prevenir varios problemas nutricionales en niños en edad preescolar.

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          Greater prevalence of iron deficiency in overweight and obese children and adolescents.

          To assess whether overweight children and adolescents, who often have poor dietary habits, are at increased risk of iron deficiency (ID). The study sample included 321 children and adolescents followed in two endocrine centers in Israel between 1999 and 2001. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of body mass index (BMI) for age and gender as follows: group 1-BMI below 85th percentile (normal weight); group 2-BMI above 85th, but below 97th percentile (overweight); and group 3-BMI above 97th percentile (obese). ID was defined as iron levels <8 micromol/l (45 mcg/dl), and iron-deficiency anemia (IDA) was defined as ID and hemoglobin level below 2 standard deviation score (SDS) for the mean for age and gender. Iron levels below 8 micromol/l (45 mcg/dl) were noted in 38.8% of the obese children and 12.1% of the overweight children, compared with 4.4% of the normal-weight group (P<0.001). There was a significant negative correlation of low iron levels with BMI SDS (r=-0.44, P<0.001), but not with age or gender. Among the children with ID, 26.6% also had IDA. Groups 1, 2, and 3 accounted for 6.7%, 35%, and 58.3% of the children with IDA, respectively. ID is common in overweight and obese children. A significantly greater proportion of obese than normal-weight children have IDA. Insufficient dietary intake of iron, whether absolute or relative to body mass, and increased iron needs may be a result of unbalanced nutrition or repeated short-term restrictive diets. Because of potentially harmful effects of ID, obese children should be routinely screened and treated as necessary.
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            Adiposity in women and children from transition countries predicts decreased iron absorption, iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification.

            Overweight is increasing in transition countries, while iron deficiency remains common. In industrialized countries, greater adiposity increases risk of iron deficiency. Higher hepcidin levels in obesity may reduce dietary iron absorption. Therefore, we investigated the association between body mass index (BMI) and iron absorption, iron status and the response to iron fortification in populations from three transition countries (Thailand, Morocco and India). In Thai women (n=92), we examined the relationship between BMI and iron absorption from a reference meal containing approximately 4 mg of isotopically labeled fortification iron. We analyzed data from baseline (n=1688) and intervention (n=727) studies in children in Morocco and India to look for associations between BMI Z-scores and baseline hemoglobin, serum ferritin and transferrin receptor, whole blood zinc protoporphyrin and body iron stores, and changes in these measures after provision of iron. In the Thai women, 20% were iron deficient and 22% were overweight. Independent of iron status, a higher BMI Z-score was associated with decreased iron absorption (P=0.030). In the Indian and Moroccan children, 42% were iron deficient and 6.3% were overweight. A higher BMI Z-score predicted poorer iron status at baseline (P<0.001) and less improvement in iron status during the interventions (P<0.001). Adiposity in young women predicts lower iron absorption, and pediatric adiposity predicts iron deficiency and a reduced response to iron fortification. These data suggest the current surge in overweight in transition countries may impair efforts to control iron deficiency in these target groups. Interactions of the 'double burden' of malnutrition during the nutrition transition may have adverse consequences.
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              Iron deficiency in early childhood in the United States: risk factors and racial/ethnic disparities.

              Iron deficiency affects 2.4 million US children, and childhood iron-deficiency anemia is associated with behavioral and cognitive delays. Given the detrimental long-term effects and high prevalence of iron deficiency, its prevention in early childhood is an important public health issue. The study objectives were to (1) identify risk factors for iron deficiency in US children 1 to 3 years old, using data from the most recent waves of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (1999-2002) and (2) examine risk factors for iron deficiency among Hispanic toddlers, the largest minority group of US children. Analyses of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV were performed for a nationally representative sample of US children 1 to 3 years old. Iron-status measures were transferrin saturation, free erythrocyte protoporphyrin, and serum ferritin. Bivariate and multivariable analyses were performed to identify factors associated with iron deficiency. Among 1641 toddlers, 42% were Hispanic, 28% were white, and 25% were black. The iron deficiency prevalence was 12% among Hispanics versus 6% in whites and 6% in blacks. Iron deficiency prevalence was 20% among those with overweight, 8% for those at risk for overweight, and 7% for normal-weight toddlers. Fourteen percent of toddlers with parents interviewed in a non-English language had iron deficiency versus 7% of toddlers with parents interviewed in English. Five percent of toddlers in day care and 10% of the toddlers not in day care had iron deficiency. Hispanic toddlers were significantly more likely than white and black toddlers to be overweight (16% vs 5% vs 4%) and not in day care (70% vs 50% vs 43%). In multivariable analyses, overweight toddlers and those not in day care had higher odds of iron deficiency. Toddlers who are overweight and not in day care are at high risk for iron deficiency. Hispanic toddlers are more likely than white and black toddlers to be overweight and not in day care. The higher prevalence of these risk factors among Hispanic toddlers may account for their increased prevalence of iron deficiency.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                alan
                Archivos Latinoamericanos de Nutrición
                ALAN
                Sociedad Latinoamericana de Nutrición (Caracas )
                0004-0622
                March 2010
                : 60
                : 1
                : 23-29
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo USA
                Article
                S0004-06222010000100004
                d60cd67c-7fdb-474b-869c-e2309805b0f6

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Venezuela

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.org.ve/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0004-0622&lng=en
                Categories
                NUTRITION & DIETETICS

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                jardines infantiles,estado nutricional,factores de riesgo,Anemia,child,child day care center,nutritional status,risk factors,niño

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