8
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Nr0b1 is a negative regulator of Zscan4c in mouse embryonic stem cells

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Nuclear receptor subfamily 0, group B, member 1 ( Nr0b1, also known as Dax1) is regarded as an important component of the transcription factor network that governs pluripotency in mouse embryonic stem (ES) cells. Here we generated inducible knockout ES cells for Nr0b1 using the Cre- loxP system and analyzed its precise function. We succeeded in establishing the Nr0b1-null ES cells and confirmed their pluripotency by showing their contribution to chimeric embryos. However, they proliferated slowly with over-expression of 2-cell stage specific transcripts including Zscan4c, which is known to be involved in telomere elongation in ES cells. We revealed that over-expression of Zscan4c prevents normal self-renewal by inducing arrest at G2 phase followed by cell death and that Nr0b1 directly represses the Zscan4c promoter. These data indicated that Nr0b1 is not essential to maintain pluripotency but is involved in the proper activation of 2-cell specific transcripts for self-renewal.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 36

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Functional expression cloning of Nanog, a pluripotency sustaining factor in embryonic stem cells.

          Embryonic stem (ES) cells undergo extended proliferation while remaining poised for multilineage differentiation. A unique network of transcription factors may characterize self-renewal and simultaneously suppress differentiation. We applied expression cloning in mouse ES cells to isolate a self-renewal determinant. Nanog is a divergent homeodomain protein that directs propagation of undifferentiated ES cells. Nanog mRNA is present in pluripotent mouse and human cell lines, and absent from differentiated cells. In preimplantation embryos, Nanog is restricted to founder cells from which ES cells can be derived. Endogenous Nanog acts in parallel with cytokine stimulation of Stat3 to drive ES cell self-renewal. Elevated Nanog expression from transgene constructs is sufficient for clonal expansion of ES cells, bypassing Stat3 and maintaining Oct4 levels. Cytokine dependence, multilineage differentiation, and embryo colonization capacity are fully restored upon transgene excision. These findings establish a central role for Nanog in the transcription factor hierarchy that defines ES cell identity.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            A novel assay for apoptosis. Flow cytometric detection of phosphatidylserine expression on early apoptotic cells using fluorescein labelled Annexin V.

            In the early stages of apoptosis changes occur at the cell surface, which until now have remained difficult to recognize. One of these plasma membrane alterations is the translocation of phosphatidylserine (PS) from the inner side of the plasma membrane to the outer layer, by which PS becomes exposed at the external surface of the cell. Annexin V is a Ca2+ dependent phospholipid-binding protein with high affinity for PS. Hence this protein can be used as a sensitive probe for PS exposure upon the cell membrane. Translocation of PS to the external cell surface is not unique to apoptosis, but occurs also during cell necrosis. The difference between these two forms of cell death is that during the initial stages of apoptosis the cell membrane remains intact, while at the very moment that necrosis occurs the cell membrane looses its integrity and becomes leaky. Therefore the measurement of Annexin V binding to the cell surface as indicative for apoptosis has to be performed in conjunction with a dye exclusion test to establish integrity of the cell membrane. This paper describes the results of such an assay, as obtained in cultured HSB-2 cells, rendered apoptotic by irradiation and in human lymphocytes, following dexamethasone treatment. Untreated and treated cells were evaluated for apoptosis by light microscopy, by measuring the amount of hypo-diploid cells using of DNA flow cytometry (FCM) and by DNA electrophoresis to establish whether or not DNA fragmentation had occurred. Annexin V binding was assessed using bivariate FCM, and cell staining was evaluated with fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled Annexin V (green fluorescence), simultaneously with dye exclusion of propidium iodide (PI) (negative for red fluorescence). The test described, discriminates intact cells (FITC-/PI-), apoptotic cells (FITC+/PI-) and necrotic cells (FITC+/PI+). In comparison with existing traditional tests the Annexin V assay is sensitive and easy to perform. The Annexin V assay offers the possibility of detecting early phases of apoptosis before the loss of cell membrane integrity and permits measurements of the kinetics of apoptotic death in relation to the cell cycle. More extensive FCM will allow discrimination between different cell subpopulations, that may or may not be involved in the apoptotic process.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Pluripotency governed by Sox2 via regulation of Oct3/4 expression in mouse embryonic stem cells.

              The pluripotency of embryonic stem (ES) cells is thought to be maintained by a few key transcription factors, including Oct3/4 and Sox2. The function of Oct3/4 in ES cells has been extensively characterized, but that of Sox2 has yet to be determined. Sox2 can act synergistically with Oct3/4 in vitro to activate Oct-Sox enhancers, which regulate the expression of pluripotent stem cell-specific genes, including Nanog, Oct3/4 and Sox2 itself. These findings suggest that Sox2 is required by ES cells for its Oct-Sox enhancer activity. Using inducible Sox2-null mouse ES cells, we show that Sox2 is dispensable for the activation of these Oct-Sox enhancers. In contrast, we demonstrate that Sox2 is necessary for regulating multiple transcription factors that affect Oct3/4 expression and that the forced expression of Oct3/4 rescues the pluripotency of Sox2-null ES cells. These results indicate that the essential function of Sox2 is to stabilize ES cells in a pluripotent state by maintaining the requisite level of Oct3/4 expression.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                16 March 2015
                2015
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Laboratory for Pluripotent Stem Cell Studies, RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology , 2-2-3 Minatojima-minamimachi, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0047, Japan
                [2 ]Division of Embryology, National Institute for Basic Biology (NIBB) , Okazaki 444-8787, Japan
                [3 ]Laboratory for Development and Regenerative Medicine, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine , 7-5-1 Kusunokicho, Chuo-ku, Kobe 650-0017, Japan
                [4 ]JST, CREST , Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075, Japan
                Author notes
                Article
                srep09146
                10.1038/srep09146
                5390923
                25772165
                Copyright © 2015, Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder in order to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                Categories
                Article

                Uncategorized

                Comments

                Comment on this article