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      Fibrinolytic Therapy with Low-Dose Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator in Retinal Vein Occlusion


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          Fibrinolytic therapy aimed at early restoration of blood flow appears to be a promising therapeutic approach in haemorrhagic retinopathy. The risk of bleeding complications, a major problem with fibrinolysis, can be reduced by the use of low-dose thrombolytic regimens. In our study, 14 patients with ischaemic central (CRVO) or branch (BRVO) retinal vein occlusion who presented with severe visual loss and recent onset of symptoms were treated with a low dose (50 mg) of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) and intravenous heparin. In 10 of 14 patients (7 CRVO, 3 BRVO), an increase in visual acuity of one line or more on the logarithmic visual acuity chart was noted and in 8 patients (6 CRVO, 2 BRVO) a reduction of areas of capillary non-perfusion was observed, suggesting that a restoration of retinal capillary blood flow can be achieved if fibrinolysis is initiated in the early phase of haemorrhagic retinopathy. In view of the poor prognosis in the natural course of haemorrhagic retinopathy and the potential haemorrhagic risk in fibrinolysis, the use of low-dose rt-PA appears to constitute an encouraging approach in the management of this disease.

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          The effects of tissue plasminogen activator, streptokinase, or both on coronary-artery patency, ventricular function, and survival after acute myocardial infarction. The GUSTO Angiographic Investigators.

          Although it is known that thrombolytic therapy improves survival after acute myocardial infarction, it has been debated whether the speed with which coronary-artery patency is restored after the initiation of therapy further affects outcome. To study this question, we randomly assigned 2431 patients to one of four treatment strategies for reperfusion: streptokinase with subcutaneous heparin; streptokinase with intravenous heparin; accelerated-dose tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) with intravenous heparin; or a combination of both activators plus intravenous heparin. Patients were also randomly assigned to cardiac angiography at one of four times after the initiation of thrombolytic therapy: 90 minutes, 180 minutes, 24 hours, or 5 to 7 days. The group that underwent angiography at 90 minutes underwent it again after 5 to 7 days. The rate of patency of the infarct-related artery at 90 minutes was highest in the group given accelerated-dose t-PA and heparin (81 percent), as compared with the group given streptokinase and subcutaneous heparin (54 percent, P < 0.001), the group given streptokinase and intravenous heparin (60 percent, P < 0.001), and the group given combination therapy (73 percent, P = 0.032). Flow through the infarct-related artery at 90 minutes was normal in 54 percent of the group given t-PA and heparin but in less than 40 percent in the three other groups (P < 0.001). By 180 minutes, the patency rates were the same in the four treatment groups. Reocclusion was infrequent and was similar in all four groups (range, 4.9 to 6.4 percent). Measures of left ventricular function paralleled the rate of patency at 90 minutes; ventricular function was best in the group given t-PA with heparin and in patients with normal flow through the infarct-related artery irrespective of treatment group. Mortality at 30 days was lowest (4.4 percent) among patients with normal coronary flow at 90 minutes and highest (8.9 percent) among patients with no flow (P = 0.009). This study supports the hypothesis that more rapid and complete restoration of coronary flow through the infarct-related artery results in improved ventricular performance and lower mortality among patients with myocardial infarction. This would appear to be the mechanism by which accelerated t-PA therapy produced the most favorable outcome in the GUSTO trial.
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            MEDICAL SCIENCE GISSI-2: A factorial randomised trial of alteplase versus streptokinase and heparin versus no heparin among 12 490 patients with acute myocardial infarction


              Author and article information

              S. Karger AG
              December 1998
              23 September 1998
              : 212
              : 6
              : 394-398
              Departments of aOphthalmology and bInternal Medicine, Klinikum der Johann-Wolfgang-Goethe-Universität, Frankfurt am Main, Germany
              27374 Ophthalmologica 1998;212:394–398
              © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Figures: 2, References: 29, Pages: 5
              Original Paper · Travail original · Originalarbeit

              Vision sciences,Ophthalmology & Optometry,Pathology
              Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator,Haemorrhagic retinopathy,Retinal capillary non-perfusion,Frontloading fibrinolytic therapy


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