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      Revision of the West-Mediterranean geometrid genus Ekboarmia, with description of a new species from Portugal (Lepidoptera, Geometridae, Ennominae)

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      Nota Lepidopterologica

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          The West-Mediterranean geometrid moth genus Ekboarmia Wehrli, 1943 (Lepidoptera: Geometridae, Ennominae) is revised based on morphology, life history, and DNA barcodes. It was found that wing patterns allow reliable identification of species, whereas the genitalia are rather uniform in shape and less informative, and the genetic divergence (in the COI gene) between species is considerably lower than in the Geometridae on average, ranging 1.5–3.9%. Four species are considered as valid: E. atlanticaria (Staudinger, 1859), with one putative subspecies in North Africa, E. fascinataria (Staudinger, 1900), E. sagnesi Dufay, 1979, and E. miniaria sp. n. from Portugal. Boarmia atlanticaria gracilis Albers & Warnecke, 1941 is downgraded to junior synonym of Boarmia (?) atlanticaria atlanticaria Staudinger, 1859, syn. n. E. fascinataria is removed from the European checklist due to lack of confirmed records. Larvae, where information exists, are external feeders on Juniperus needles (Cupressaceae), and adults are nocturnal, inhabiting various habitats up to 1400 metres above sea level, having apparently at least two generations per year. Adults, male and female genitalia, distribution map, and diagnostic characters are illustrated for all species. Larva and pupa of E. atlanticaria and larva of E. sagnesi are illustrated, and results of DNA barcode analysis are presented for most taxa studied.

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          An inexpensive, automation-friendly protocol for recovering high-quality DNA

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            AN AMPLIFICATION OF THE PHYLOGENETIC SPECIES CONCEPT

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              DNA Barcoding the Geometrid Fauna of Bavaria (Lepidoptera): Successes, Surprises, and Questions

              Background The State of Bavaria is involved in a research program that will lead to the construction of a DNA barcode library for all animal species within its territorial boundaries. The present study provides a comprehensive DNA barcode library for the Geometridae, one of the most diverse of insect families. Methodology/Principal Findings This study reports DNA barcodes for 400 Bavarian geometrid species, 98 per cent of the known fauna, and approximately one per cent of all Bavarian animal species. Although 98.5% of these species possess diagnostic barcode sequences in Bavaria, records from neighbouring countries suggest that species-level resolution may be compromised in up to 3.5% of cases. All taxa which apparently share barcodes are discussed in detail. One case of modest divergence (1.4%) revealed a species overlooked by the current taxonomic system: Eupithecia goossensiata Mabille, 1869 stat.n. is raised from synonymy with Eupithecia absinthiata (Clerck, 1759) to species rank. Deep intraspecific sequence divergences (>2%) were detected in 20 traditionally recognized species. Conclusions/Significance The study emphasizes the effectiveness of DNA barcoding as a tool for monitoring biodiversity. Open access is provided to a data set that includes records for 1,395 geometrid specimens (331 species) from Bavaria, with 69 additional species from neighbouring regions. Taxa with deep intraspecific sequence divergences are undergoing more detailed analysis to ascertain if they represent cases of cryptic diversity.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nota Lepidopterologica
                NL
                Pensoft Publishers
                2367-5365
                0342-7536
                March 06 2017
                March 06 2017
                : 40
                : 1
                : 39-63
                Article
                10.3897/nl.40.10440
                © 2017

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