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      Indirect plant defense against insect herbivores: a review.

      1 , 1 , 2

      Insect science

      Wiley

      elicitor, indirect plant defense, natural enemies, volatile

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          Abstract

          Plants respond to herbivore attack by launching 2 types of defenses: direct defense and indirect defense. Direct defense includes all plant traits that increase the resistance of host plants to insect herbivores by affecting the physiology and/or behavior of the attackers. Indirect defense includes all traits that by themselves do not have significant direct impact on the attacking herbivores, but can attract natural enemies of the herbivores and thus reduce plant loss. When plants recognize herbivore-associated elicitors, they produce and release a blend of volatiles that can attract predators, parasites, and other natural enemies. Known herbivore-associated elicitors include fatty acid-amino acid conjugates, sulfur-containing fatty acids, fragments of cell walls, peptides, esters, and enzymes. Identified plant volatiles include terpenes, nitrogenous compounds, and indoles. In addition, constitive traits including extrafloral nectars, food bodies, and domatia can be further induced to higher levels and attract natural enemies as well as provide food and shelter to carnivores. A better understanding of indirect plant defense at global and componential levels via advanced high throughput technologies may lead to utilization of indirect defense in suppression of herbivore damage to plants.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Insect Sci.
          Insect science
          Wiley
          1744-7917
          1672-9609
          Feb 2018
          : 25
          : 1
          Affiliations
          [1 ] Department of Entomology, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.
          [2 ] Hard Winter Wheat Genetics Research Unit, USDA-ARS, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas, USA.
          Article
          10.1111/1744-7917.12436
          28035791

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