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      Diversity and toxigenicity of fungi and description of Fusarium madaense sp. nov. from cereals, legumes and soils in north-central Nigeria

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          Abstract

          Mycological investigation of various foods (mainly cowpea, groundnut, maize, rice, sorghum) and agricultural soils from two states in north-central Nigeria (Nasarawa and Niger), was conducted in order to understand the role of filamentous fungi in food contamination and public health. A total of 839 fungal isolates were recovered from 84% of the 250 food and all 30 soil samples. Preliminary identifications were made, based on macro- and micromorphological characters. Representative strains (n = 121) were studied in detail using morphology and DNA sequencing, involving genera/species-specific markers, while extrolite profiles using LC-MS/MS were obtained for a selection of strains. The representative strains grouped in seven genera ( Aspergillus , Fusarium , Macrophomina , Meyerozyma , Neocosmospora , Neotestudina and Phoma ). Amongst the 21 species that were isolated during this study was one novel species belonging to the Fusarium fujikuroi species complex, F. madaense sp. nov., obtained from groundnut and sorghum in Nasarawa state. The examined strains produced diverse extrolites, including several uncommon compounds: averantinmethylether in A. aflatoxiformans ; aspergillimide in A. flavus ; heptelidic acid in A. austwickii ; desoxypaxillin, kotanin A and paspalitrems (A and B) in A. aflatoxiformans , A. austwickii and A. cerealis ; aurasperon C, dimethylsulochrin, fellutanine A, methylorsellinic acid, nigragillin and pyrophen in A. brunneoviolaceus ; cyclosporins (A, B, C and H) in A. niger ; methylorsellinic acid, pyrophen and secalonic acid in A. piperis ; aspulvinone E, fonsecin, kojic acid, kotanin A, malformin C, pyranonigrin and pyrophen in A. vadensis ; and all compounds in F. madaense sp. nov., Meyerozyma , Neocosmospora and Neotestudina . This study provides snapshot data for prediction of food contamination and fungal biodiversity exploitation.

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          Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies.

          Panama disease of banana, caused by the fungus Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cubense, is a serious constraint both to the commercial production of banana and cultivation for subsistence agriculture. Previous work has indicated that F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense consists of several clonal lineages that may be genetically distant. In this study we tested whether lineages of the Panama disease pathogen have a monophyletic origin by comparing DNA sequences of nuclear and mitochondrial genes. DNA sequences were obtained for translation elongation factor 1alpha and the mitochondrial small subunit ribosomal RNA genes for F. oxysporum strains from banana, pathogenic strains from other hosts and putatively nonpathogenic isolates of F. oxysporum. Cladograms for the two genes were highly concordant and a partition-homogeneity test indicated the two datasets could be combined. The tree inferred from the combined dataset resolved five lineages corresponding to "F. oxysporum f. sp. cubense" with a large dichotomy between two taxa represented by strains most commonly isolated from bananas with Panama disease. The results also demonstrate that the latter two taxa have significantly different chromosome numbers. F. oxysporum isolates collected as nonpathogenic or pathogenic to other hosts that have very similar or identical elongation factor 1alpha and mitochondrial small subunit genotypes as banana pathogens were shown to cause little or no disease on banana. Taken together, these results indicate Panama disease of banana is caused by fungi with independent evolutionary origins.
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            The Fusarium Laboratory Manual

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              Testing for Phylogenetic Conflict Among Molecular Data Sets in the Tribe Triticeae (Gramineae)

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                MycoKeys
                MycoKeys
                11
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:C004A564-9D6A-5F9F-B058-6A3815DFE9C3
                MycoKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-4057
                1314-4049
                2020
                08 June 2020
                : 67
                : 95-124
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Microbiology, Babcock University, Ilishan Remo, Ogun State, Nigeria Babcock University Ilishan Remo Nigeria
                [2 ] Institute of Bioanalytics and Agro-Metabolomics, Department of Agrobiotechnology (IFA-Tulln), University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna (BOKU), Konrad Lorenzstr. 20, A-3430 Tulln, Austria University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences Vienna Tulln Austria
                [3 ] Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute, Uppsalalaan 8, 3584 CT Utrecht, The Netherlands Westerdijk Fungal Biodiversity Institute Utrecht Netherlands
                [4 ] Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast, University Road, Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland, UK Queen’s University Belfast Belfast United Kingdom
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Chibundu N. Ezekiel ( chaugez@ 123456gmail.com )

                Academic editor: C. Gueidan

                Article
                52716
                10.3897/mycokeys.67.52716
                7295817
                Chibundu N. Ezekiel, Bart Kraak, Marcelo Sandoval-Denis, Michael Sulyok, Oluwawapelumi A. Oyedele, Kolawole I. Ayeni, Oluwadamilola M. Makinde, Oluwatosin M. Akinyemi, Rudolf Krska, Pedro W. Crous, Jos Houbraken

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Funding
                International Foundation of Science (IFS), Sweden
                Categories
                Research Article
                Ascomycota
                Botryosphaeriaceae
                Botryosphaeriales
                Dothideomycetes
                Eurotiales
                Eurotiomycetes
                Hypocreales
                Nectriaceae
                Saccharomycetales
                Saccharomycetes
                Sordariomycetes
                Biodiversity & Conservation
                Taxonomy
                Africa
                Nigeria
                West Africa

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