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Lentinula edodes Mycelium as Effective Agent for Piroxicam Mycoremediation

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      Pollution of the environment with inorganic and organic substances is one of the main problems in the world. For this reason, it is necessary to conduct researches for effective methods of biodegradation of xenobiotics, including drugs whose unmetabolized forms are introduced into the environment, especially into water. One possible solution to this problem may be the use of white rot fungi, such as Lentinula edodes. This is an edible species used in medicine because of its beneficial anti-cancer, hypocholesterolemic, hypotensive, hypoglycemic and antioxidant effects. Due to the fact that the mycelium of L. edodes produces enzymes with oxidizing properties that can degrade xenobiotics. The aim of the work was verification if in vitro cultures of L. edodes can be used for bioremediation of non-steroidal, anti-inflammatory drug: piroxicam. For this purpose, the in vitro culture of L. edodes was derived and the mycelial cultures of this species enriched with piroxicam were analyzed. The biodegradation pathway of piroxicam by L. edodes mycelium was carried out by the UPLC/MS/MS method. The degradation process of piroxicam was found to affect primarily the linker between the thiazine and the piperidine ring, leading to its oxidation and cleavage. Additionally, oxidation of the benzothiazine moiety was observed, leading to hydroxylation and oxidation of the phenyl ring as well as oxidation of the thiazine ring leading to partial or complete removal of the sulfonamide moiety. It seems that the degradation process led finally to 2-hydroxybenozquinone, which may be further oxidized to inorganic compounds. What’s more, concentration of piroxicam in in vitro cultures of L. edodes was not correlated with effectiveness of biodegradation of this compound – on each experimental series, the level of degradation was the same. The results confirm the possibility of using the investigated L. edodes mycelium for remediation of piroxicam.

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      Lignin is the most abundant renewable source of aromatic polymer in nature, and its decomposition is indispensable for carbon recycling. It is chemically recalcitrant to breakdown by most organisms because of the complex, heterogeneous structure. The white-rot fungi produce an array of extracellular oxidative enzymes that synergistically and efficiently degrade lignin. The major groups of ligninolytic enzymes include lignin peroxidases, manganese peroxidases, versatile peroxidases, and laccases. The peroxidases are heme-containing enzymes with catalytic cycles that involve the activation by H2O2 and substrate reduction of compound I and compound II intermediates. Lignin peroxidases have the unique ability to catalyze oxidative cleavage of C-C bonds and ether (C-O-C) bonds in non-phenolic aromatic substrates of high redox potential. Manganese peroxidases oxidize Mn(II) to Mn(III), which facilitates the degradation of phenolic compounds or, in turn, oxidizes a second mediator for the breakdown of non-phenolic compounds. Versatile peroxidases are hybrids of lignin peroxidase and manganese peroxidase with a bifunctional characteristic. Laccases are multi-copper-containing proteins that catalyze the oxidation of phenolic substrates with concomitant reduction of molecular oxygen to water. This review covers the chemical nature of lignin substrates and focuses on the biochemical properties, molecular structures, reaction mechanisms, and related structures/functions of these enzymes.
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          Toxic effects of the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac. Part I: histopathological alterations and bioaccumulation in rainbow trout.

          Human and veterinary pharmaceuticals have been shown to occur in considerably high amounts in sewage treatment plant (STP) effluents and surface waters. The non-steroidal inflammatory drug diclofenac represents one of the most commonly detected compounds. Information concerning possible ecotoxicological risks of the substance are rather scarce. So far there are no data available on its possible effects in fish after prolonged exposure. In order to evaluate sublethal toxic effects of diclofenac in fish, rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) exposed to diclofenac concentrations ranging from 1 microg/L to 500 microg/L over a 28 day period were investigated by histopathological methods. In addition, diclofenac residues in various organs were analyzed by means of gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The histopathological examinations of diclofenac-exposed fish revealed alterations of the kidney such as an hyaline droplet degeneration of the tubular epithelial cells and the occurrence of an interstitial nephritis. In the gills, the predominant finding consisted in a necrosis of pillar cells leading to damage of the capillary wall within the secondary lamellae. The lowest observed effect concentration (LOEC) at which both renal lesions and alterations of the gills occurred was 5 microg/L. In contrast, the light microscopical examination of the liver, the gastro-intestinal tract, and the spleen did not reveal any histopathological alterations neither in diclofenac-exposed fish nor in solvent controls or control individuals. Chemical analysis showed a concentration-related accumulation of diclofenac in all organs examined. The highest amounts could be detected in the liver, followed by the kidney, the gills and the muscle tissue. Dependent on the diclofenac concentration used, the bioconcentration factors (BCF) were 12-2732 in the liver, 5-971 in the kidney, 3-763 in the gills, and 0.3-69 in the muscle respectively. From the present findings it can be assumed, that prolonged exposure in environmentally relevant concentrations of diclofenac leads to an impairment of the general health condition of fish.

            Author and article information

            1Department of Pharmaceutical Botany, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków, Poland
            2Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków, Poland
            3Department of Medicinal Chemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków, Poland
            4Department of Integrated Dentistry, Jagiellonian University Medical College , Kraków, Poland
            Author notes

            Edited by: Mariusz Cycoń, Medical University of Silesia, Poland

            Reviewed by: Robert Skibinski, Medical University of Lublin, Poland; Anna Gałązka, Institute of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Poland; Giovanna Cristina Varese, University of Turin, Italy; Santosh Kr. Karn, Sardar Bhagwan Singh Post Graduate Institute of Biomedical Science & Research, India

            *Correspondence: Monika Dąbrowska, mtylka@

            This article was submitted to Microbiotechnology, Ecotoxicology and Bioremediation, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

            Front Microbiol
            Front Microbiol
            Front. Microbiol.
            Frontiers in Microbiology
            Frontiers Media S.A.
            21 February 2019
            : 10
            6393367 10.3389/fmicb.2019.00313
            Copyright © 2019 Muszyńska, Dąbrowska, Starek, Żmudzki, Lazur, Pytko-Polończyk and Opoka.

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

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