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      Proximal tubular dysfunction as an indicator of chronic graft dysfunction

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          Abstract

          New strategies are being devised to limit the impact of renal sclerosis on graft function. Individualization of immunosuppression, specifically the interruption of calcineurin-inhibitors has been tried in order to promote better graft survival once chronic graft dysfunction has been established. However, the long-term impact of these approaches is still not totally clear. Nevertheless, patients at higher risk for tubular atrophy and interstitial fibrosis (TA/IF) development should be carefully monitored for tubular function as well as glomerular performance. Since tubular-interstitial impairment is an early event in TA/IF pathogenesis and associated with graft function, it seems reasonable that strategies directed at assessing tubular structural integrity and function would yield important functional and prognostic data. The measurement of small proteins in urine such as α-1-microglobulin, N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase, alpha/pi S-glutathione transferases, β-2 microglobulin, and retinol binding protein is associated with proximal tubular cell dysfunction. Therefore, its straightforward assessment could provide a powerful tool in patient monitoring and ongoing clinical assessment of graft function, ultimately helping to facilitate longer patient and graft survival associated with good graft function.

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          Epithelial to mesenchymal transition in renal fibrogenesis: pathologic significance, molecular mechanism, and therapeutic intervention.

          Youhua Liu (2004)
          Mature tubular epithelial cells in adult kidney can undergo epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a phenotypic conversion that is fundamentally linked to the pathogenesis of renal interstitial fibrosis. Emerging evidence indicates that a large proportion of interstitial fibroblasts are actually originated from tubular epithelial cells via EMT in diseased kidney. Moreover, selective blockade of EMT in a mouse genetic model dramatically reduces fibrotic lesions after obstructive injury, underscoring a definite importance of EMT in renal fibrogenesis. Tubular EMT is proposed as an orchestrated, highly regulated process that consists of four key steps: (1) loss of epithelial cell adhesion; (2) de novo alpha-smooth muscle actin expression and actin reorganization; (3) disruption of tubular basement membrane; and (4) enhanced cell migration and invasion. Of the many factors that regulate EMT in different ways, transforming growth factor-beta1 is the most potent inducer that is capable of initiating and completing the entire EMT course, whereas hepatocyte growth factor and bone morphogenetic protein-7 act as EMT inhibitors both in vitro and in vivo. Multiple intracellular signaling pathways have been implicated in mediating EMT, in which Smad/integrin-linked kinase may play a central role. This article attempts to provide a comprehensive review of recent advances on understanding the pathologic significance, molecular mechanism, and therapeutic intervention of EMT in the setting of chronic renal fibrosis.
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            Emerging biomarkers of acute kidney injury.

            Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a major clinical problem with a rising incidence and high mortality rate. The lack of early biomarkers has resulted in an unacceptable delay in initiating therapies. Here we will update the reader on promising new blood and urinary biomarkers that have recently emerged through the application of innovative technologies such as functional genomics and proteomics to human and animal models of AKI. The most promising biomarkers of AKI for clinical use include a plasma panel (NGAL and cystatin C) and a urine panel (NGAL, Il-18 and KIM-1). As they represent tandem biomarkers, it is likely that the AKI panels will be useful for timing the initial insult and assessing the duration and severity of AKI. Based on the differential expression of the biomarkers, it is also likely that the AKI panels will distinguish between the various types and etiologies of AKI. It will be important in future studies to validate the sensitivity and specificity of these biomarker panels in clinical samples from large cohorts and from multiple clinical situations.
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              Cyclosporine A-induced renal fibrosis: a role for epithelial-mesenchymal transition.

              Cyclosporine A, which has been the foremost immunosuppressive agent since the early 1980's, significantly improves the success of organ transplantation. However, common complications of cyclosporine A therapy, such as severe renal tubulointerstitial fibrosis, limit the drug's clinical use. Although the exact mechanisms driving cyclosporine A-induced tubulointerstitial fibrosis remain elusive, we hypothesized that epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) may play a major role. We investigated this in vitro by treating human proximal tubular cells with cyclosporine A. Morphological changes were observed after cyclosporine A treatment, including cell elongation (with a large degree of detachment), cytoskeletal rearrangement, and junctional disruption. In addition, expression of the myofibroblast-specific marker alpha-smooth muscle actin was detected in treated cells. These observations are consistent with events described during EMT. Using Affymetrix gene microarrays, we identified 128 genes that were differentially regulated in renal tubular cells after cyclosporine A treatment, including known profibrotic factors, oncogenes, and transcriptional regulators. Cyclosporine A induced a dose-dependent increase in transforming growth factor-beta secretion from proximal tubular cells. Subsequent functional studies revealed that protein kinase C-beta isoforms play a key role in cyclosporine A-induced effects. These findings provide novel insights into cyclosporine A-induced renal fibrosis and the molecular mechanisms underlying EMT, events that may be relevant in other disease states.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Role: ND
                Journal
                bjmbr
                Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research
                Braz J Med Biol Res
                Associação Brasileira de Divulgação Científica (Ribeirão Preto )
                1414-431X
                March 2009
                : 42
                : 3
                : 229-236
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                [2 ] Universidade Federal de São Paulo Brazil
                [3 ] Harvard University USA
                [4 ] Instituto Israelita de Ensino e Pesquisa Brasil
                Article
                S0100-879X2009000300003
                d6591974-a7cc-4804-b339-0bdc483b4b4e

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

                History
                Product

                SciELO Brazil

                Self URI (journal page): http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_serial&pid=0100-879X&lng=en
                Categories
                BIOLOGY
                MEDICINE, RESEARCH & EXPERIMENTAL

                Medicine,General life sciences
                Renal transplantation,Tubular proteins,Proximal tubular dysfunction,Chronic allograft nephropathy,Retinol binding protein

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