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      Renal Function in Patients with Abdominal Aortic Aneurysm

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          Aims: Renal dysfunction occurs occasionally after the repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and preoperative renal function is considered as one of the potential causes. The present study was designed to evaluate and compare renal function and risk factors of AAA patients with those of hypertensive patients. Methods: We prospectively examined 95 patients with AAA and 72 patients with essential hypertension (HT) without other cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Renal function, urinary albumin excretion (UAE) and renal scintigraphy were compared. Kidney size was calculated using ultrasonography. Results: Serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in AAA patients was worse than in HT patients. Smoking status was more apparent in AAA patients. Renal artery stenosis occurred in 8 patients with AAA. Renal scintigraphy showed normal function in 19%, hypofunction in 69% and severe dysfunction in 12% of the AAA patients, and normal function in 42% and hypofunction in 58% of the HT patients (p < 0.0001). Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that renal function was related to age, UAE, CVD, smoking status and kidney size for all patients, UAE, CVD, smoking status and kidney size for AAA patients, and age and kidney size for HT patients. Conclusion: Renal function of AAA patients was worse than HT patients without other CVD. The risk factors for renal dysfunction were different between AAA and HT patients. These preoperative conditions may relate to the postoperative renal dysfunction seen in AAA patients.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Acute renal failure following cardiac surgery.

          Acute renal failure requiring dialysis (ARF-D) occurs in 1.5% of patients following cardiac surgery, and remains a cause of major morbidity and mortality. While some preoperative risk factors have been characterized, the influence of preoperative and intraoperative factors on the occurrence of ARF following cardiac surgery is less well understood. Preoperative and intraoperative data on 2843 consecutive adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) from February 1, 1995 to February 1, 1997 were recorded and entered into a computerized database. Two definitions of renal failure were employed: (i) ARF defined as a rise in serum creatinine (Cr) of 1 mg/dl above baseline; and (ii) ARF-D defined as the development of ARF for which some form of dialytic therapy was required. The association between preoperative and intraoperative variables and the development of ARF was assessed by multivariate logistic regression. A total of 2672 of the 2844 patients underwent isolated coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery, the remaining 172 underwent valve surgery with or without bypass grafting. Of the CABG patients 7.9% developed ARF and 0.7% developed ARF-D. The mortality for patients who developed ARF was 14% (OR 15, P = 0.0001) compared with 1% among those who did not develop ARF. The mortality for CABG patients who developed ARF-D was 28% (OR 20, P = 0.0001) compared with 1.8% among those who did not require dialysis. Variables that were significantly associated with the development of ARF by multivariate analysis included: increased age, elevated preoperative serum Cr, duration of CPB, presence of a carotid artery bruit, presence of diabetes, reduced cardiac ejection fraction and increased body weight. Variables independently associated with ARF-D included serum Cr, duration of CPB, carotid artery bruit and presence of diabetes. The utility of these models for predicting the development of ARF and ARF-D was confirmed by bootstrapping techniques. Because of the small number of patients who underwent valve surgery, none of these variables were significantly associated with the development of ARF or ARF-D in this group of patients. The development of ARF or ARF-D is associated with a high mortality following CABG surgery. We have identified perioperative variables, which may be useful in stratifying risk for the development of ARF.
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            Microalbuminuria predicts cardiovascular events and renal insufficiency in patients with essential hypertension.

            Some patients with essential hypertension manifest greater than normal urinary excretion of albumin (UAE). Authors of a few retrospective studies have suggested that there is an association between microalbuminuria and cardiovascular risk. To evaluate whether microalbuminuria is associated with a greater than normal risk of cardiovascular and renal events. We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 141 hypertensive individuals followed up for approximately 7 years. Hypertensive patients were defined as having microalbuminuria if the baseline average UAE of three urine collections was in the range 30-300 mg/24 h. Fifty-four patients had microalbuminuria and 87 had normal UAE. At baseline, the two groups were similar for age, weight, blood pressure, and rate of clearance of creatinine. Serum levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and uric acid in patients with microalbuminuria were higher than levels in those with normal UAE, whereas levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol in patients with microalbuminuria were lower than levels in patient with normal UAE. During follow-up, 12 cardiovascular events occurred among the 54 (21.3%) patients with microalbuminuria and only two such events among the 87 patients with normal UAE (P < 0.0002). Stepwise logistic regression analysis showed that UAE (P = 0.003), cholesterol level (P = 0.047) and diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.03) were independent predictors of the cardiovascular outcome. Rate of clearance of creatinine from patients with microalbuminuria decreased more than did that from those with normal UAE (decrease of 12.1 +/- 2.77 versus 7.1 +/- 0.88 ml/min, P < 0.03). This study suggests that hypertensive individuals with microalbuminuria manifest a greater incidence of cardiovascular events and a greater decline in renal function than do patients with normal UAE.
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              Predictors of ARF after cardiac surgical procedures.

              In a pilot study, a low preoperative serum ferritin level predicted increased risk for acute renal failure (ARF) after cardiopulmonary bypass. It was hypothesized that this may reflect a decreased ability to bind free iron and defend against oxidative stress. However, the pilot study was performed in a small number of patients (n = 30) operated on by a single surgeon. The purpose of this study was to validate whether the serum ferritin level predicts ARF in a larger sample. The present study evaluated 120 patients who underwent procedures performed by eight surgeons at another tertiary referral center. Data were collected prospectively and included patient characteristics, laboratory studies, procedure types, and postoperative course. ARF was defined as a 25% or greater increase in creatinine level 48 hours after surgery. The frequency of ARF was 42%, but no patient required dialysis therapy. Preoperative serum ferritin levels did not differ in the groups with and without ARF (158 +/- 119 and 163 +/- 125 ng/mL, respectively), and rates of ARF did not differ when examined by ferritin quartiles. ARF was more frequent in those who underwent valve surgery (54% versus 35% in patients who did not undergo valve procedures; P = 0.044). The odds ratio for ARF after valve surgery was 2.58 (95% confidence interval, 1.06 to 6.29; P = 0.037), adjusted for longer times of surgery and aortic cross-clamp. Most excess ARF occurred in those who underwent aortic valve replacement (AVR; 62%; P = 0.014 versus nonvalve procedures). Low preoperative serum ferritin level was not confirmed to predict ARF after cardiac surgery. Valve procedures, particularly AVR, increased the risk for ARF. Copyright 2003 by the National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

                Author and article information

                Kidney Blood Press Res
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                August 2006
                15 August 2006
                : 29
                : 2
                : 67-73
                aDivision of Hypertension and Nephrology, bDivision of Cardiology, Department of Internal Medicine, cDepartment of Radiology, and dDepartment of Vascular Surgery, National Cardiovascular Center, Osaka, Japan
                92980 Kidney Blood Press Res 2006;29:67–73
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Tables: 4, References: 27, Pages: 7
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