Candida albicans colonization is required for invasive disease 1- 3 . Unlike humans, adult mice with mature intact gut microbiota are resistant to C. albicans gastrointestinal (GI) colonization 2, 4 . But the factors that promote C. albicans colonization resistance are unknown. Here we demonstrate that commensal anaerobic bacteria – specifically Clostridial Firmicutes (Clusters IV and XIVa) and Bacteroidetes – are critical for maintaining C. albicans colonization resistance in mice. Using Bacteroides thetaiotamicron as a model organism, we find that HIF-1α, a transcription factor important for activating innate immune effectors, and the antimicrobial peptide LL37-CRAMP are key determinants of C. albicans colonization resistance. While antibiotic treatment enables C. albicans colonization, pharmacologic activation of colonic Hif1a induces CRAMP expression and results in a significant reduction of C. albicans GI colonization and a 50% decrease in mortality from invasive disease. In the setting of antibiotics, Hif1a and Cramp are required for B. thetaiotamicron-induced protection against CA colonization of the gut. Thus, C. albicans GI colonization modulation by activation of gut mucosal immune effectors may represent a novel therapeutic approach for preventing invasive fungal disease in humans.