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      Effect of elevated CO 2 and high temperature on seed-set and grain quality of rice

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          Abstract

          Hybrid vigour may help overcome the negative effects of climate change in rice. A popular rice hybrid (IR75217H), a heat-tolerant check (N22), and a mega-variety (IR64) were tested for tolerance of seed-set and grain quality to high-temperature stress at anthesis at ambient and elevated [CO 2]. Under an ambient air temperature of 29 °C (tissue temperature 28.3 °C), elevated [CO 2] increased vegetative and reproductive growth, including seed yield in all three genotypes. Seed-set was reduced by high temperature in all three genotypes, with the hybrid and IR64 equally affected and twice as sensitive as the tolerant cultivar N22. No interaction occurred between temperature and [CO 2] for seed-set. The hybrid had significantly more anthesed spikelets at all temperatures than IR64 and at 29 °C this resulted in a large yield advantage. At 35 °C (tissue temperature 32.9 °C) the hybrid had a higher seed yield than IR64 due to the higher spikelet number, but at 38 °C (tissue temperature 34–35 °C) there was no yield advantage. Grain gel consistency in the hybrid and IR64 was reduced by high temperatures only at elevated [CO 2], while the percentage of broken grains increased from 10% at 29 °C to 35% at 38 °C in the hybrid. It is concluded that seed-set of hybrids is susceptible to short episodes of high temperature during anthesis, but that at intermediate tissue temperatures of 32.9 °C higher spikelet number (yield potential) of the hybrid can compensate to some extent. If the heat tolerance from N22 or other tolerant donors could be transferred into hybrids, yield could be maintained under the higher temperatures predicted with climate change.

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          Most cited references 55

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          Rice yields decline with higher night temperature from global warming.

          The impact of projected global warming on crop yields has been evaluated by indirect methods using simulation models. Direct studies on the effects of observed climate change on crop growth and yield could provide more accurate information for assessing the impact of climate change on crop production. We analyzed weather data at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1979 to 2003 to examine temperature trends and the relationship between rice yield and temperature by using data from irrigated field experiments conducted at the International Rice Research Institute Farm from 1992 to 2003. Here we report that annual mean maximum and minimum temperatures have increased by 0.35 degrees C and 1.13 degrees C, respectively, for the period 1979-2003 and a close linkage between rice grain yield and mean minimum temperature during the dry cropping season (January to April). Grain yield declined by 10% for each 1 degrees C increase in growing-season minimum temperature in the dry season, whereas the effect of maximum temperature on crop yield was insignificant. This report provides a direct evidence of decreased rice yields from increased nighttime temperature associated with global warming.
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            Rising atmospheric carbon dioxide: plants FACE the future.

            Atmospheric CO(2) concentration ([CO(2)]) is now higher than it was at any time in the past 26 million years and is expected to nearly double during this century. Terrestrial plants with the C(3) photosynthetic pathway respond in the short term to increased [CO(2)] via increased net photosynthesis and decreased transpiration. In the longer term this increase is often offset by downregulation of photosynthetic capacity. But much of what is currently known about plant responses to elevated [CO(2)] comes from enclosure studies, where the responses of plants may be modified by size constraints and the limited life-cycle stages that are examined. Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment (FACE) was developed as a means to grow plants in the field at controlled elevation of CO(2) under fully open-air field conditions. The findings of FACE experiments are quantitatively summarized via meta-analytic statistics and compared to findings from chamber studies. Although trends agree with parallel summaries of enclosure studies, important quantitative differences emerge that have important implications both for predicting the future terrestrial biosphere and understanding how crops may need to be adapted to the changed and changing atmosphere.
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              Food for thought: lower-than-expected crop yield stimulation with rising CO2 concentrations.

              Model projections suggest that although increased temperature and decreased soil moisture will act to reduce global crop yields by 2050, the direct fertilization effect of rising carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]) will offset these losses. The CO2 fertilization factors used in models to project future yields were derived from enclosure studies conducted approximately 20 years ago. Free-air concentration enrichment (FACE) technology has now facilitated large-scale trials of the major grain crops at elevated [CO2] under fully open-air field conditions. In those trials, elevated [CO2] enhanced yield by approximately 50% less than in enclosure studies. This casts serious doubt on projections that rising [CO2] will fully offset losses due to climate change.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Exp Bot
                J. Exp. Bot
                jexbot
                exbotj
                Journal of Experimental Botany
                Oxford University Press
                0022-0957
                1460-2431
                13 June 2012
                20 March 2012
                20 March 2012
                : 63
                : 10
                : 3843-3852
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Plant Physiology, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi 110012, India
                [2 ]Plant Environment Laboratory, University of Reading, Cutbush Lane, Shinfield, Reading RG2 9AF, UK
                [3 ]Plant Breeding, Genetics, and Biotechnology Division, International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines
                [4 ]Resilient Dryland Systems, ICRISAT, Patancheru, AP 502324, India
                [5 ]Grain Quality, Nutrition, and Postharvest Center, International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines
                [6 ]Crop and Environmental Sciences Division, International Rice Research Institute, DAPO Box 7777, Metro Manila, Philippines
                [7 ]CIRAD, UMR AGAP, F-34398, Montpellier, France
                Author notes
                []To whom correspondence should be addressed. e-mail: t.r.wheeler@ 123456reading.ac.uk
                [*]

                These authors have contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                10.1093/jxb/ers077
                3388820
                22438302
                © 2012 The Author(s).

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                This paper is available online free of all access charges (see http://jxb.oxfordjournals.org/open_access.html for further details)

                Page count
                Pages: 10
                Categories
                Research Paper

                Plant science & Botany

                spikelet fertility, flowering, high temperature, rice, elevated co2, grain quality

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