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      Recent food safety and fraud issues within the dairy supply chain (2015–2019)

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          Abstract

          Milk and milk products play a vital role in diets around the globe. Due to their nutritional benefits there has been an increase in production and consumption over the past thirty years. For this growth to continue the safety and authenticity of dairy products needs to be maintained which is a huge area of concern. Throughout the process, from farm to processor, different sources of contamination (biological, chemical or physical) may occur either accidently or intentionally. Through online resources (the EU Rapid Alert System for Food and Feed (RASFF) and HorizonScan) safety and fraud data were collected from the past five years relating to milk and milk products. Cheese notifications were most frequently reported for both safety alerts (pathogenic micro-organisms) and fraud incidences (fraudulent documentation). Alongside the significant number of biological contaminations identified, chemical, physical and inadequate controls (in particular; foreign bodies, allergens, industrial contaminants and mycotoxins) were also found. Although the number of incidents were significantly smaller, these contaminants can still pose a significant risk to human health depending on their toxicity and exposure. Grey literature provided a summary of contamination and fraud issues from around the globe and shows its potential to be used alongside database resources for a holistic overview. In ensuring the integrity of milk during ever changing global factors (climate change, competition between food and feed and global pandemics) it is vital that safety and authenticity issues are continually monitored by industry, researchers and governing bodies.

          Highlights

          • Contamination and fraud issues can occur along the dairy supply chain.

          • RASFF and Horizonscan provides safety and authenticity issues for dairy commodities.

          • Cheese products have the highest number of safety and adulteration alerts.

          • Pathogenic micro-organisms (Listeria Monocytogenes) commonly reported.

          • Risk prioritisation approach allowed other contaminants to be prioritised.

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          Most cited references 17

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          The European Union One Health 2018 Zoonoses Report

          (2019)
          Abstract This report of the European Food Safety Authority and the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control presents the results of zoonoses monitoring activities carried out in 2018 in 36 European countries (28 Member States (MS) and 8 non‐MS). The first and second most commonly reported zoonoses in humans were campylobacteriosis and salmonellosis, respectively. The European Union (EU) trend for confirmed human cases of these two diseases was stable during 2014–2018. The proportion of human salmonellosis cases due to Salmonella Enteritidis was at the same level in 2018 as in 2017. Of the 27 reporting MS, 16 met all Salmonella reduction targets for poultry, whereas 11 MS failed meeting at least one. The EU flock prevalence of target Salmonella serovars in breeding hens, laying hens, broilers and fattening turkeys decreased during recent years but stalled in breeding turkeys. Salmonella results from Competent Authorities for pig carcasses and for poultry tested through National Control Programmes were more frequently positive compared with food business operators. Shiga toxin‐producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections in humans were the third most commonly reported zoonosis in the EU and increased from 2014 to 2018. Yersiniosis was the fourth most frequently reported zoonosis in humans in 2018 with a stable trend in 2014–2018. The number of reported confirmed listeriosis cases further increased in 2018, despite Listeria rarely exceeding the EU food safety limit tested in ready‐to‐eat food. In total, 5,146 food‐ and waterborne outbreaks were reported. Salmonella was the most commonly detected agent with S. Enteritidis causing one in five outbreaks. Salmonella in eggs and egg products was the highest risk agent/food pair. A large increase of human West Nile virus infections was reported in 2018. The report further updates on bovine tuberculosis, Brucella, Trichinella, Echinococcus, Toxoplasma, rabies, Coxiella burnetii (Q fever) and tularaemia.
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            Development and application of a database of food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration from 1980 to 2010.

            Food ingredient fraud and economically motivated adulteration are emerging risks, but a comprehensive compilation of information about known problematic ingredients and detection methods does not currently exist. The objectives of this research were to collect such information from publicly available articles in scholarly journals and general media, organize into a database, and review and analyze the data to identify trends. The results summarized are a database that will be published in the US Pharmacopeial Convention's Food Chemicals Codex, 8th edition, and includes 1305 records, including 1000 records with analytical methods collected from 677 references. Olive oil, milk, honey, and saffron were the most common targets for adulteration reported in scholarly journals, and potentially harmful issues identified include spices diluted with lead chromate and lead tetraoxide, substitution of Chinese star anise with toxic Japanese star anise, and melamine adulteration of high protein content foods. High-performance liquid chromatography and infrared spectroscopy were the most common analytical detection procedures, and chemometrics data analysis was used in a large number of reports. Future expansion of this database will include additional publically available articles published before 1980 and in other languages, as well as data outside the public domain. The authors recommend in-depth analyses of individual incidents.
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              The Melamine Incident: Implications for International Food and Feed Safety

              Background A major food safety incident in China was made public in September 2008. Kidney and urinary tract effects, including kidney stones, affected about 300,000 Chinese infants and young children, with six reported deaths. Melamine had been deliberately added at milk-collecting stations to diluted raw milk ostensibly to boost its protein content. Subsequently, melamine has been detected in many milk and milk-containing products, as well as other food and feed products, which were also exported to many countries worldwide. Objectives The melamine event represents one of the largest deliberate food contamination incidents. We provide a description and analysis of this event to determine the global implications on food and feed safety. Discussions A series of factors, including the intentional character of the milk contamination, the young age of the population affected, the large number of potentially contaminated products, the global distribution of these products, and the delay in reporting led this event to take on unexpected proportions. This incident illustrated the complexity of international trade of food products and food ingredients that required immediate actions at international level. Conclusion Managing food-safety events should be done internationally and early on as soon as multinational consequences are expected. Collaboration between food-safety authorities worldwide is needed to efficiently exchange information and to enable tracking and recalling of affected products to ensure food safety and to protect public health.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Glob Food Sec
                Glob Food Sec
                Global Food Security
                Elsevier B.V.
                2211-9124
                16 October 2020
                September 2020
                16 October 2020
                : 26
                : 100447
                Affiliations
                Institute for Global Food Security, School of Biological Sciences, Queen's University Belfast, 19 Chlorine Gardens, Belfast, BT9 5DL, UK
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author.
                Article
                S2211-9124(20)30101-2 100447
                10.1016/j.gfs.2020.100447
                7561604
                © 2020 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

                Since January 2020 Elsevier has created a COVID-19 resource centre with free information in English and Mandarin on the novel coronavirus COVID-19. The COVID-19 resource centre is hosted on Elsevier Connect, the company's public news and information website. Elsevier hereby grants permission to make all its COVID-19-related research that is available on the COVID-19 resource centre - including this research content - immediately available in PubMed Central and other publicly funded repositories, such as the WHO COVID database with rights for unrestricted research re-use and analyses in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. These permissions are granted for free by Elsevier for as long as the COVID-19 resource centre remains active.

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                dairy fraud, dairy safety, dairy supply chain

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