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      Transcriptome analysis of differentiating trypanosomes reveals the existence of multiple post-transcriptional regulons

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          Trypanosome gene expression is regulated almost exclusively at the post-transcriptional level, with mRNA degradation playing a decisive role. When trypanosomes are transferred from the blood of a mammal to the midgut of a Tsetse fly, they transform to procyclic forms: gene expression is reprogrammed, changing the cell surface and switching the mode of energy metabolism. Within the blood, trypanosomes can pre-adapt for Tsetse transmission, becoming growth-arrested stumpy forms. We describe here the transitions in gene expression that occur during differentiation of in-vitro cultured bloodstream forms to procyclic forms.


          Some mRNAs showed changes within 30 min of cis-aconitate addition, whereas others responded 12-24 hours later. For the first 12 h after addition of cis-aconitate, cells accumulated at the G1 phase of the cell cycle, and showed decreases in mRNAs required for proliferation, mimicking the changes seen in stumpy forms: many mRNAs needed for ribosomal and flagellar biogenesis showed striking co-regulation. Other mRNAs encoding components of signal transduction pathways and potential regulators were specifically induced only during differentiation. Messenger RNAs encoding proteins required for individual metabolic pathways were often co-regulated.


          Trypanosome genes form post-transcriptional regulons in which mRNAs with functions in particular pathways, or encoding components of protein complexes, show almost identical patterns of regulation.

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          Most cited references 73

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          TM4: a free, open-source system for microarray data management and analysis.

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            In silico prediction of protein-protein interactions in human macrophages

            Background: Protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analyses are highly valuable in deciphering and understanding the intricate organisation of cellular functions. Nevertheless, the majority of available protein-protein interaction networks are context-less, i.e. without any reference to the spatial, temporal or physiological conditions in which the interactions may occur. In this work, we are proposing a protocol to infer the most likely protein-protein interaction (PPI) network in human macrophages. Results: We integrated the PPI dataset from the Agile Protein Interaction DataAnalyzer (APID) with different meta-data to infer a contextualized macrophage-specific interactome using a combination of statistical methods. The obtained interactome is enriched in experimentally verified interactions and in proteins involved in macrophage-related biological processes (i.e. immune response activation, regulation of apoptosis). As a case study, we used the contextualized interactome to highlight the cellular processes induced upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. Conclusion: Our work confirms that contextualizing interactomes improves the biological significance of bioinformatic analyses. More specifically, studying such inferred network rather than focusing at the gene expression level only, is informative on the processes involved in the host response. Indeed, important immune features such as apoptosis are solely highlighted when the spotlight is on the protein interaction level.
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              DAVID: Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery.

              Functional annotation of differentially expressed genes is a necessary and critical step in the analysis of microarray data. The distributed nature of biological knowledge frequently requires researchers to navigate through numerous web-accessible databases gathering information one gene at a time. A more judicious approach is to provide query-based access to an integrated database that disseminates biologically rich information across large datasets and displays graphic summaries of functional information. Database for Annotation, Visualization, and Integrated Discovery (DAVID; addresses this need via four web-based analysis modules: 1) Annotation Tool - rapidly appends descriptive data from several public databases to lists of genes; 2) GoCharts - assigns genes to Gene Ontology functional categories based on user selected classifications and term specificity level; 3) KeggCharts - assigns genes to KEGG metabolic processes and enables users to view genes in the context of biochemical pathway maps; and 4) DomainCharts - groups genes according to PFAM conserved protein domains. Analysis results and graphical displays remain dynamically linked to primary data and external data repositories, thereby furnishing in-depth as well as broad-based data coverage. The functionality provided by DAVID accelerates the analysis of genome-scale datasets by facilitating the transition from data collection to biological meaning.

                Author and article information

                BMC Genomics
                BMC Genomics
                BioMed Central
                26 October 2009
                : 10
                : 495
                [1 ]Zentrum für Molekulare Biologie der Universität Heidelberg, ZMBH-DKFZ Alliance, Im Neuenheimer Feld 282, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
                [2 ]Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, In Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120 Heidelberg, Germany
                [3 ]Division of Infection & Immunity and Wellcome Trust Centre for Molecular Parasitology, Glasgow Biomedical Research Centre, 120 University Place, Glasgow, G12 8TA, UK
                [4 ]Centre for Integrated Protein Sciences Munich (CIPSM), Lehrstuhl für Bioanalytik, Technische Universität München, an der Saatzucht 5, 85354 Freising, Germany
                Copyright © 2009 Queiroz et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Research Article



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