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      Sex Difference of Urinary Osmolality in German Children

      American Journal of Nephrology
      S. Karger AG
      Sex difference, Urinary osmolality, Water intake, Osmolar load

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          Background/Aims: Origin of sex difference in urinary osmolality. Methods: In 495 healthy children aged 4.0–14.9 years participating in the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) study (247 boys, 248 girls), the water intake recorded in 24-hour weighed dietary records along with urinary volume, osmolality and free water reserve in 24-hour urine samples from the same day as the dietary record were determined. Results: Boys showed a significantly higher energy intake, total water intake, urinary osmolality and osmolar load than girls but no increase in urinary volume. When referred to energy intake, mean urinary volume and mean free water reserve were significantly higher in girls than boys. Girls could have a preference for food with a higher water density and lower non-renal water losses. Conclusion: German girls of the DONALD study displayed a lower urinary osmolality than German boys due to a relatively higher urinary volume. The sex difference could be caused by a higher water density of the ingested food (ml/kcal) and a lower insensible water loss (ml/kcal) in girls than boys.

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          Most cited references2

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          Gender and age differences in food cognition.

          Results from three studies relevant to a model of food cognition based on the evaluative dimensions pleasure, health, and convenience are reported. In the first study, discriminant analyses of the evaluative ratings (n = 248) of 35 meals and snacks yielded significant gender and age differences on the pleasure and health dimensions. Separate factor analyses of the pleasure and health ratings revealed that males and females grouped foods differently on these criteria. The factor analysis of convenience ratings suggested that males and females perceive the meaning of convenience differently. In the second study, 336 college students rated 27 meals on the three evaluative dimensions and also indicated their preferences for each meal. Multiple regression analyses showed that preferences could be significantly predicted, and other results showed that as compared to males, females give higher health, pleasure and convenience ratings to healthy meals. The third study employed a modified free association technique to investigate gender and age differences in the meanings of nine familiar foods. Data from 96 males and females aged 18 to 86 revealed a substantial variety of significant age and gender differences for specific foods. It is suggested that taken together, these results indicate important cognitive and affective sources for gender and age-related food attitudes.
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            Flüssigkeitsversorgung der Senioren in Deutschland


              Author and article information

              Am J Nephrol
              American Journal of Nephrology
              S. Karger AG
              August 2002
              02 August 2002
              : 22
              : 4
              : 352-355
              Research Institute of Child Nutrition, Dortmund, Germany
              65226 Am J Nephrol 2002;22:352–355
              © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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              Page count
              Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 4
              Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/65226
              Self URI (text/html): https://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/65226
              Self URI (journal page): https://www.karger.com/SubjectArea/Nephrology
              Clinical Study

              Cardiovascular Medicine,Nephrology
              Osmolar load,Urinary osmolality,Sex difference,Water intake
              Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology
              Osmolar load, Urinary osmolality, Sex difference, Water intake


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