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      Insulin-Like Growth Factor (IGF) Parameters and Tools for Efficacy: The IGF-I Generation Test in Children

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          Serum levels of growth hormone (GH)-dependent peptides could provide important and valuable measures of GH sensitivity and, potentially, responsiveness. In normal individuals, serum insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) concentrations are dependent on the dose of GH given, with IGF-I responsiveness not decreasing with age. Individuals heterozygous for the E180 GH receptor (GHR) splice mutation have normal IGF-I generation, but those homozygous for the E180 splice mutation have very low basal and stimulated IGF-I concentrations. Similar results are observed for the serum IGF-binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3) response to GH, with a correlation between changes in serum concentrations of IGF-I and changes in IGFBP-3 in normal, heterozygotic, GH-insensitive and GH-deficient participants. In individuals with the E180 splice mutation, IGF-I and IGFBP-3 tests show sensitivity and specificity for detecting GH insensitivity (GHI). In children with idiopathic short stature, it appears that some individuals have selective resistance to GH, with their ability to generate IGF-I more impaired than their ability to generate other GH-dependent peptides. This heterogeneous group may require individualization of GH dosage. IGF generation tests remain the best short-term, in vivo test for classic GHI, although diagnostic tests will undoubtedly require further modification to identify milder pathophysiologic abnormalities.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Growth hormone insensitivity associated with a STAT5b mutation.

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            Mutations of the growth hormone receptor in children with idiopathic short stature. The Growth Hormone Insensitivity Study Group.

            Short stature in children who are not deficient in growth hormone (GH) is probably caused by a variety of defects. Some children with idiopathic short stature have low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein, which is derived from the GH receptor. The possibility that low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein might indicate partial insensitivity to GH led us to investigate possible defects in the gene for the GH receptor in children with idiopathic short stature and low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein. We studied 14 children with idiopathic short stature who were selected on the basis of normal GH secretion and low serum concentrations of GH-binding protein. Analysis of single-strand conformation polymorphisms and DNA sequencing were both used to identify mutations in the GH-receptor gene. Mutations in the region of the GH-receptor gene that codes for the extracellular domain of the receptor were found in 4 of the 14 children, but in none of 24 normal subjects. One of the four children with mutations was a compound heterozygote, with one mutation that reduced the affinity of the receptor for GH and a second mutation that may affect a function other than ligand binding. The remaining three children had single mutations in one allele of the gene. One mutation introduced a premature termination codon, and two caused substitutions of single amino acids in a structurally conserved domain of the receptor. Some children with idiopathic short stature may have partial insensitivity to GH due to mutations in the GH-receptor gene.
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              Improvement of diagnostic criteria in growth hormone insensitivity syndrome: solutions and pitfalls


                Author and article information

                Horm Res Paediatr
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                February 2005
                10 March 2005
                : 62
                : Suppl 1
                : 37-43
                aLucile Packard Foundation for Children’s Health, Palo Alto; bStanford University, Stanford, Calif.; cOregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oreg., USA; dInstitute of Endocrinology, Metabolism, and Reproduction IEMIR, Quito, Ecuador
                80757 Horm Res 2004;62(suppl 1):37–43
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 7


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