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      Vaccine Safety: Myths and Misinformation

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          Abstract

          The World Health Organization has named vaccine hesitancy as one of the top ten threats to global health in 2019. The reasons why people choose not to vaccinate are complex, but lack of confidence in vaccine safety, driven by concerns about adverse events, has been identified as one of the key factors. Healthcare workers, especially those in primary care, remain key influencers on vaccine decisions. It is important, therefore, that they be supported by having easy access to trusted, evidence-based information on vaccines. Although parents and patients have a number of concerns about vaccine safety, among the most common are fears that adjuvants like aluminum, preservatives like mercury, inactivating agents like formaldehyde, manufacturing residuals like human or animal DNA fragments, and simply the sheer number of vaccines might be overwhelming, weakening or perturbing the immune system. As a consequence, some fear that vaccines are causing autism, diabetes, developmental delays, hyperactivity, and attention-deficit disorders, amongst others. In this review we will address several of these topics and highlight the robust body of scientific evidence that refutes common concerns about vaccine safety.

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          Most cited references48

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          Understanding vaccine hesitancy around vaccines and vaccination from a global perspective: a systematic review of published literature, 2007-2012.

          Vaccine "hesitancy" is an emerging term in the literature and discourse on vaccine decision-making and determinants of vaccine acceptance. It recognizes a continuum between the domains of vaccine acceptance and vaccine refusal and de-polarizes previous characterization of individuals and groups as either anti-vaccine or pro-vaccine. The primary aims of this systematic review are to: 1) identify research on vaccine hesitancy; 2) identify determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings including its context-specific causes, its expression and its impact; and 3) inform the development of a model for assessing determinants of vaccine hesitancy in different settings as proposed by the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts Working Group (SAGE WG) for dealing with vaccine hesitancy. A broad search strategy, built to capture multiple dimensions of public trust, confidence and hesitancy around vaccines, was applied across multiple databases. Peer-reviewed studies were selected for inclusion if they focused on childhood vaccines [≤ 7 years of age], used multivariate analyses, and were published between January 2007 and November 2012. Our results show a variety of factors as being associated with vaccine hesitancy but they do not allow for a complete classification and confirmation of their independent and relative strength of influence. Determinants of vaccine hesitancy are complex and context-specific - varying across time, place and vaccines. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Risk of anaphylaxis after vaccination in children and adults.

            Anaphylaxis is a potentially life-threatening allergic reaction. The risk of anaphylaxis after vaccination has not been well described in adults or with newer vaccines in children.
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              Edward Jenner and the History of Smallpox and Vaccination

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Microbiol
                Front Microbiol
                Front. Microbiol.
                Frontiers in Microbiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1664-302X
                17 March 2020
                2020
                : 11
                Affiliations
                [1] 1Division of Infectious Diseases, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia , Philadelphia, PA, United States
                [2] 2National Children’s Research Centre , Dublin, Ireland
                Author notes

                Edited by: Kathrin Jansen, Pfizer Inc, United States

                Reviewed by: Joanna Kirman, University of Otago, New Zealand; Zhou Xing, McMaster University, Canada

                *Correspondence: Paul A. Offit, offit@ 123456email.chop.edu

                This article was submitted to Infectious Diseases, a section of the journal Frontiers in Microbiology

                Article
                10.3389/fmicb.2020.00372
                7090020
                d67bd623-3046-42d9-9456-bcfccd4aa74a
                Copyright © 2020 Geoghegan, O’Callaghan and Offit.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) and the copyright owner(s) are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 1, Equations: 0, References: 48, Pages: 7, Words: 0
                Categories
                Microbiology
                Review

                Microbiology & Virology
                vaccine,safety,adjuvant,immunization,side effect
                Microbiology & Virology
                vaccine, safety, adjuvant, immunization, side effect

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