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Accuracy of sonographic diagnosis of pneumoperitoneum using the enhanced peritoneal stripe sign in beagle dogs

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      Abstract

      The objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of estimating the smallest amount of abdominal free gas detectible in a large population of beagles by ultrasonography. Healthy dogs were randomly divided into three groups: group A that received 0.1 mL of air injected into the peritoneal cavity, group B that received 0.2 mL of air injected into the peritoneal cavity, and group C that received 0.5 mL of intraperitoneal air. Randomly, some dogs in each group did not receive air injection for the negative control. All ultrasonographic procedures were performed by individuals blinded to group assignments and the presence of intraperitoneal air. The minimum volume of consistently detectable air with good accuracy and reliability was 0.2 mL. Results of the study demonstrated that the enhanced peritoneal stripe sign (EPSS) can verify cases of pneumoperitoneum if more than 0.2 mL of intra-abdominal free gas is present The EPSS is a reliable and specific ultrasonographic characteristic for diagnosing pneumoperitoneum in dogs.

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      Most cited references 9

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      Prevalence and duration of postoperative pneumoperitoneum: sensitivity of CT vs left lateral decubitus radiography.

      The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, location, and duration of pneumoperitoneum in postoperative patients and to compare the sensitivities of CT and left lateral decubitus radiography in the detection of postoperative pneumoperitoneum. Twenty-seven CT scans and 27 abdominal radiographs with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position were obtained prospectively in 17 patients after uncomplicated abdominal surgery. Fifteen patients were examined 3 days after surgery and 12 were examined 6 days after surgery. The studies were evaluated in a blinded fashion for the presence, location, and volume of free air. The presence of air on the radiographs and the presence and quantity of air on the CT scans were correlated with each subject's surgical procedure, age, sex, and body habitus. Pneumoperitoneum was seen on 13 (87%) of 15 CT scans and eight (53%) of 15 radiographs obtained 3 days after surgery and on six (50%) of 12 CT scans and one (8%) of 12 radiographs obtained 6 days after surgery. The calculated volume of free air seen on the CT scans ranged from 0.3 to 5.8 ml. Sixty-two percent of collections by volume were located in the midline/parahepatic space, 22% in the pelvis, and 16% in the mesentery. Radiographs showed pneumoperitoneum in only nine (47%) of 19 examinations in which the corresponding CT scans showed free air. Findings on radiographs were false-negative in seven (87%) of eight obese patients in whom pneumoperitoneum was detected on CT scans. The prevalence of pneumoperitoneum in the postoperative period based on CT findings is greater than that previously reported. Small amounts of pneumoperitoneum frequently collect along the anterior abdominal wall in two preferential spaces, the pararectus and midrectus recesses. The results of this study show that CT is significantly more sensitive than plain radiography for detecting small amounts of free intraperitoneal air in postoperative patients. Radiography is particularly insensitive for imaging obese and heavy patients.
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        A specific sign of pneumoperitoneum on sonography: enhancement of the peritoneal stripe.

        Failure to reveal pneumoperitoneum is a recognized weakness of abdominal sonography. Our objective is to describe a reliable and reproducible sign of pneumoperitoneum that was first identified in an animal model and then confirmed in patients who had undergone laparoscopy. We injected 300 ml of degassed water into the peritoneal cavity of a 15-kg anesthetized pig. Sonographic images were obtained of the anterior peritoneal area after intraperitoneal injection of a single bubble, a series of bubbles, and, subsequently, a 10-ml bolus of air. Later, abdominal sonography was performed in nine patients who had undergone laparoscopy. Close attention was paid to the anterior peritoneal area and signs of free air observed in the animal model. Ten healthy volunteers functioned as a control group. In the pig, minute amounts of intraperitoneal air showed on sonography as enhancement of the peritoneal stripe. Larger volumes of intraperitoneal air showed as enhancement of the peritoneal stripe associated with dirty shadowing or distal multiple reflection artifacts. The stripe enhanced each time it appeared in the reflection artifact. Intraluminal gas was associated with a normal thin peritoneal stripe, superficial and distinct from the underlying gas artifact. The patients who had undergone laparoscopy showed findings suggestive of small and large pockets of free air, as we saw in the pig model. The control group showed findings consistent with intraluminal gas only. On sonography, enhancement of the peritoneal stripe alone or with reflection artifacts involving the peritoneal stripe is an accurate sign of pneumoperitoneum.
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          Sonographic detection of pneumoperitoneum in patients with acute abdomen.

           Y C Yoon,  Dong Uk Lee,  Y Ko (1989)
          We describe five patients who presented with an acute abdomen in whom pneumoperitoneum was first detected by sonography. All five subsequently were proved to have a perforated viscus. In all cases, the pneumoperitoneum was seen as an echogenic line with a posterior ring-down or reverberation artifact between the anterior abdominal wall and the anterior surface of the liver. The finding was shown best in the right upper quadrant with the patient in the left lateral decubitus position. The echoes caused by the pneumoperitoneum overlapped the echoes of the lung during inspiration, but the echoes were separate during expiration. The probable cause of pneumoperitoneum was determined with sonography in four of the five patients: three had perforation of duodenal ulcer and one had perforation of gastric cancer. The fifth patient had a perforated ileum, which was not evident on the sonogram. Our experience with these patients suggests that the detection of pneumoperitoneum on sonography in patients with an acute abdomen is an important sign of a perforated viscus.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Research Institute of Life Sciences, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 660-701, Korea.
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Tel: +82-55-772-2356; Fax: +82-55-772-2330; lhc@ 123456gnu.ac.kr
            Journal
            J Vet Sci
            J. Vet. Sci
            JVS
            Journal of Veterinary Science
            The Korean Society of Veterinary Science
            1229-845X
            1976-555X
            June 2014
            16 June 2014
            : 15
            : 2
            : 195-198
            24136212
            4087220
            10.4142/jvs.2014.15.2.195
            © 2014 The Korean Society of Veterinary Science.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

            Funding
            Funded by: Basic Science Research Program through the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology
            Award ID: 2010-0007394
            Categories
            Original Article

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