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      G protein-coupled receptor kinase type 2 and β-arrestin2: Key players in immune cell functions and inflammation

      , , , , , , ,
      Cellular Signalling
      Elsevier BV

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          Trends in GPCR drug discovery: new agents, targets and indications

          G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are the most intensively studied drug targets, largely due to their substantial involvement in human pathophysiology and their pharmacological tractability. Here, we report the first analysis of all GPCR drugs and agents in clinical trials. This reveals the current trends across molecule types, drug targets and therapeutic indications, including showing that 481 drugs (~34% of all drugs approved by the FDA) act at 107 unique GPCR targets. Approximately 320 agents are currently in clinical trials, of which ~36% target 64 potentially novel GPCR targets without an approved drug, and the number of biological drugs, allosteric modulators and biased agonists has grown. The major disease indications for GPCR modulators show a shift towards diabetes, obesity, and Alzheimer’s disease, while other central nervous system disorders remain highly represented. The 227 (57%) non-olfactory GPCRs that are yet to be explored in clinical trials have broad untapped therapeutic potential, particularly in genetic and immune system disorders. Finally, we provide an interactive online resource to analyse and infer trends in GPCR drug discovery.
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            Macrophage M1/M2 polarization.

            Macrophages can be affected by a variety of factors to change their phenotype and thus affect their function. Activated macrophages are usually divided into two categories, M1-like macrophages and M2-like macrophages. Both M1 macrophages and M2 macrophages are closely related to inflammatory responses, among which M1 macrophages are mainly involved in pro-inflammatory responses and M2 macrophages are mainly involved in anti-inflammatory responses. Improving the inflammatory environment by modulating the activation state of macrophages is an effective method for the treatment of diseases. In this review, we analyzed the mechanism of macrophage polarization from the tumor microenvironment, nanocarriers, nuclear receptor PPARγ, phagocytosis, NF-κB signaling pathways, and other pathways.
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              Mast cells in the development of adaptive immune responses.

              Mast cells are so widely recognized as critical effector cells in allergic disorders and other immunoglobulin E-associated acquired immune responses that it can be difficult to think of them in any other context. However, mast cells also can be important as initiators and effectors of innate immunity. In addition, mast cells that are activated during innate immune responses to pathogens, or in other contexts, can secrete products and have cellular functions with the potential to facilitate the development, amplify the magnitude or regulate the kinetics of adaptive immune responses. Thus, mast cells may influence the development, intensity and duration of adaptive immune responses that contribute to host defense, allergy and autoimmunity, rather than simply functioning as effector cells in these settings.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Cellular Signalling
                Cellular Signalling
                Elsevier BV
                08986568
                July 2022
                July 2022
                : 95
                : 110337
                Article
                10.1016/j.cellsig.2022.110337
                35461901
                d682da61-673e-4eba-8e83-c8fa017bbbf4
                © 2022

                https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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