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      Humanized liver mouse model with transplanted human hepatocytes from patients with ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency

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          Ornithine transcarbamylase deficiency (OTCD) is a metabolic and genetic disease caused by dysfunction of the hepatocytic urea cycle. To develop new drugs or therapies for OTCD, it is ideal to use models that are more closely related to human metabolism and pathology. Primary human hepatocytes (HHs) isolated from two patients (a 6‐month‐old boy and a 5‐year‐old girl) and a healthy donor were transplanted into host mice (hemi‐, hetero‐OTCD mice, and control mice, respectively). HHs were isolated from these mice and used for serial transplantation into the next host mouse or for in vitro experiments. Histological, biochemical, and enzyme activity analyses were performed. Cultured HHs were treated with ammonium chloride or therapeutic drugs. Replacement rates exceeded 80% after serial transplantation in both OTCD mice. These highly humanized OTCD mice showed characteristics similar to OTCD patients that included increased blood ammonia levels and urine orotic acid levels enhanced by allopurinol. Hemi‐OTCD mice showed defects in OTC expression and significantly low enzymatic activities, while hetero‐OTCD mice showed residual OTC expression and activities. A reduction in ammonium metabolism was observed in cultured HHs from OTCD mice, and treatment with the therapeutic drug reduced the ammonia levels in the culture medium. In conclusion, we established in vivo OTC mouse models with hemi‐ and hetero‐patient HHs. HHs isolated from the mice were useful as an in vitro model of OTCD. These OTC models could be a source of valuable patient‐derived hepatocytes that would enable large scale and reproducible experiments using the same donor.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Novel robust in vitro hepatitis B virus infection model using fresh human hepatocytes isolated from humanized mice.

          The molecular mechanisms underlying the hepatitis B virus (HBV) life cycle are poorly understood because of the lack of appropriate in vitro infection models. Herein, we report a highly effective in vitro HBV infection system using fresh human hepatocytes (HHs) isolated from chimeric mice with humanized livers. After the inoculation of sera collected from HBV-infected chimeric mice or patients to HHs, we measured levels of HBV DNA, mRNA, covalently closed circular DNA, and viral protein expression in HHs. We investigated the neutralization activity of hepatitis B immune globulin and the effects of siRNA against sodium taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide and clathrin heavy chain on HBV infection. We confirmed the expression of viral antigens in HHs and the presence of extracellular HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen. The maximum infection rate was approximately 80%. Lamivudine and hepatitis B immune globulin treatment reduced HBV DNA levels in a dose-dependent manner. Knockdown of sodium taurocholate-cotransporting polypeptide and clathrin heavy chain significantly reduced the levels of hepatitis B surface antigen. Infection was successfully established using different donor HHs and inocula. Elevation of extracellular HBV DNA levels and the increase of HBV-positive HHs were blocked by continuous hepatitis B immune globulin treatment, indicating virus spread in this model. Chimeric mouse-derived HHs provide a robust in vitro infection model that can completely support the HBV life cycle.
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            Generation of Novel Chimeric Mice with Humanized Livers by Using Hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID Mice

            We have used homozygous albumin enhancer/promoter-driven urokinase-type plasminogen activator/severe combined immunodeficient (uPA/SCID) mice as hosts for chimeric mice with humanized livers. However, uPA/SCID mice show four disadvantages: the human hepatocytes (h-heps) replacement index in mouse liver is decreased due to deletion of uPA transgene by homologous recombination, kidney disorders are likely to develop, body size is small, and hemizygotes cannot be used as hosts as more frequent homologous recombination than homozygotes. To solve these disadvantages, we have established a novel host strain that has a transgene containing albumin promoter/enhancer and urokinase-type plasminogen activator cDNA and has a SCID background (cDNA-uPA/SCID). We applied the embryonic stem cell technique to simultaneously generate a number of transgenic lines, and found the line with the most appropriate levels of uPA expression—not detrimental but with a sufficiently damaged liver. We transplanted h-heps into homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice via the spleen, and monitored their human albumin (h-alb) levels and body weight. Blood h-alb levels and body weight gradually increased in the hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice and were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. By contrast, blood h-alb levels and body weight in uPA/SCID chimeric mice decreased from 16 weeks of age onwards. A similar decrease in body weight was observed in the homozygous cDNA-uPA/SCID genotype, but h-alb levels were maintained until they were approximately 30 weeks old. Microarray analyses revealed identical h-heps gene expression profiles in homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice were identical to that observed in the uPA/SCID mice. Furthermore, like uPA/SCID chimeric mice, homozygous and hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID chimeric mice were successfully infected with hepatitis B virus and C virus. These results indicate that hemizygous cDNA-uPA/SCID mice may be novel and useful hosts for producing chimeric mice for use in future long-term studies, including hepatitis virus infection analysis or drug toxicity studies.
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              Development and rescue of human familial hypercholesterolaemia in a xenograft mouse model

              Diseases of lipid metabolism are a major cause of human morbidity, but no animal model entirely recapitulates human lipoprotein metabolism. Here we develop a xenograft mouse model using hepatocytes from a patient with familial hypercholesterolaemia caused by loss-of-function mutations in the low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLR). Like familial hypercholesterolaemia patients, our familial hypercholesterolaemia liver chimeric mice develop hypercholesterolaemia and a 'humanized‘ serum profile, including expression of the emerging drug targets cholesteryl ester transfer protein and apolipoprotein (a), for which no genes exist in mice. We go on to replace the missing LDLR in familial hypercholesterolaemia liver chimeric mice using an adeno-associated virus 9-based gene therapy and restore normal lipoprotein profiles after administration of a single dose. Our study marks the first time a human metabolic disease is induced in an experimental animal model by human hepatocyte transplantation and treated by gene therapy. Such xenograft platforms offer the ability to validate human experimental therapies and may foster their rapid translation into the clinic.

                Author and article information

                J Inherit Metab Dis
                J Inherit Metab Dis
                Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease
                John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (Hoboken, USA )
                30 December 2020
                May 2021
                : 44
                : 3 ( doiID: 10.1002/jimd.v44.3 )
                : 618-628
                [ 1 ] Research and Development Department PhoenixBio Co., Ltd Higashi‐Hiroshima Japan
                [ 2 ] National Center for Child Health and Development Tokyo Japan
                [ 3 ] Division for Advanced Medical Sciences National Center for Child Health and Development Tokyo Japan
                [ 4 ] Regenerative Medicine National Center for Child Health and Development Tokyo Japan
                [ 5 ] Research Center for Hepatology and Gastroenterology Hiroshima University Hiroshima Japan
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence

                Chise Tateno, Research and Development Department, PhoenixBio Co., Ltd, 3‐4‐1 Kagamiyama, Higashi‐Hiroshima, Japan.

                Email: chise.mukaidani@ 123456phoenixbio.co.jp

                © 2020 The Authors. Journal of Inherited Metabolic Disease published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of SSIEM

                This is an open access article under the terms of the http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, Pages: 11, Words: 6894
                Original Article
                Original Articles
                Custom metadata
                May 2021
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_JATSPMC version:6.0.2 mode:remove_FC converted:01.07.2021


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