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      Justice in a Time of Health Crisis - A Comparative Study Translated title: العدالة في زمن الأزمة الصحية - دراسة مقارنة

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          Abstract

            The study aims to determine the legal rules that can be resorted to confront the COVID-19 virus, by suspending the time limits for litigation and appeals, and organizing the work of courts during this health crisis, to preserve the rights of litigants and avoid the paralysis of the justice sector. The study adopted the comparative-critical analytical method, which depends on dismantling the basic measures that were taken after the spread of the Covid-19 virus, and then studying them in depth, to try to devise new rules that can be used whenever the state finds itself in the same circumstances. The shortcomings of the solutions adopted in some countries indicate the need to adopt legal texts that are characterized by generality and non-circumstantial solutions. Among the solutions is that of considering the COVID-19 virus or quarantine measures as force majeure. The study confirmed the need to take some organizational measures with regard to the in-person sessions and the importance of resorting to electronic procedures and remote trial to ensure the continued work of the courts. The study is the first of its kind that deals with procedural justice in a time of health crisis in a comparative way.

          Translated abstract

          تهدف الدراسة إلى تحديدِ القواعد القانونية التي يمكن اللجوء إليها لمجابهة فيروس كوفيد-19؛ بتعليق آجال التقاضي والطعون وتنظيم عمل المحاكم خلال هذه الأزمة الصحية؛ للحفاظ على حقوق المتقاضين، ولتفادي شلل قطاع العدالة. اعتمدت الدراسة المنهج التحليلي النقدي المقارن، الذي يعتمد على تفكيك الإجراءات الأساسية التي تم اتخاذها بعد انتشار فيروس كوفيد-19، ومن ثَمَّ دراستها بتعمقٍ؛ لمحاولة استنباط قواعدَ جديدةٍ يمكن اللجوء إليها كلما وُجدَت الدولة في نفس الظروف. بينت الدراسة نقص الحلول المعتمدة في بعض الدول، والحاجة لاعتماد نصوص قانونية تتميز بعموميتها وبحلولها غير الظرفية. ومن بين الحلول اعتبار فيروس كوفيد-19 أو إجراءات الحجر من قبيل القوة القاهرة. وقد أكدت الدراسة الحاجة لاتخاذ بعض التدابير التنظيمية بالنسبة إلى الجلسات الحضورية، وأهمية اللجوء للإجراءات الإلكترونية والمحاكمة عن بعد؛ لضمان تواصل عمل المحاكم. تُعد الدراسة الأولى من نوعها التي تهتم بالعدالة الإجرائية في زمن الأزمات الصحية بطريقة مقارنة.

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          Corona pandemic between the overlapping legal characteristics and the complexity of the legal effects on labour relations

          Qatar has taken necessary precautionary measures and decisions to prevent the spread of the Corona pandemic. This has been a crucial test for the sufficiency of both civil and labor laws in managing the impact of the pandemic on both private sector activities and on labour relations. This paper sought to understand the legal effects of the pandemic through the reference to the Qatari Civil Law and Labour Law articles, and to the relevant international conventions, jurisprudence, legal doctrine and legislation of several countries, with the purpose of proposing optimal legal solutions to both Qatari legislator and courts. This paper concluded that the Corona pandemic produced a unique legal reality characterized by overlapping legal descriptions of the Corona pandemic, on the one hand, and the complexity of the legal implications of this pandemic on labour relations, on the other. The paper also proposed the enactment of the proposed legislative package, to reduce the effects of the pandemic, and to prevent its future effects on the private sector transactions and the labour relations.
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            Impact of the novel Coronavirus pandemic on the debtor's commitment to the implementation of their liabilities - A Comparative analytical study in the Qatari and French Laws

            The Coronavirus pandemic, and the entailed measures taken by governments to limit its spread, have raised the question of what mechanisms the civil law can offer to establish a balance between the creditor's right to request a specific enforcement from one hand, and the debtor's right to ask for non-execution if the conditions become impossible or too burdensome on the other hand. Despite the important role of the Force Majeure and Emergency circumstances (Hardship) theories in offering a better solution to this problem, the in-depth study has proven that not only the Term theory (grace period) could play an equally important role, but it also can be a better solution to maintain the contractual relationship and balance between both creditor’s and debtor's rights. This study is divided into three chapters: The first presents the theory of emergency circumstances (hardship) as a mechanism to deal with the effects of the Coronavirus pandemic, the second addresses the theory of force majeure as a mechanism to deal with the effects of the pandemic and the third is dedicated to the theory of term as a mechanism to counter its effects.
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              Author and article information

              Contributors
              TN
              Journal
              International Review of Law
              Qatar University Press
              June 08 2023
              Affiliations
              [1]University of Sfax جامعة صفاقس
              Article
              3060
              10.29117/irl.2023.0255
              d6a81bc8-c791-4152-bc0f-feb805895a7e
              Copyright @ 2023 International Review of Law المجلة الدولية للقانون

              https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0

              History

              Law
              Time limits for litigation,Distance trial,عدالة,أزمة صحية,فيروس كوفيد-19,آجال التقاضي,تعليق,قوة قاهرة,جلسات حضورية,محاكمة عن بعد,Justice,Coronavirus disease (COVID-19),Force majeure

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