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      Assessment of the quality of immunization data produced by the national individual registration system in Uruguay, 2006 Translated title: Evaluación de la calidad de los datos de vacunación generados por el sistema nacional de registro individual en Uruguay, 2006

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          OBJECTIVE: The nominal registration system of Uruguay's national immunization program (NIP) tracks administered vaccines on a paper form filled out after each vaccination and collated into a national database, thus allowing for individual follow-up. This study performed a comprehensive assessment of the quality of Uruguay's immunization data in November 2006 to evaluate the validity of the information and to confirm the high national immunization coverage reported by the program. METHODS: The research team analyzed the concordance of the operational-level numerators (infant immunization data from 18 public and private vaccination centers in six country departments) with department- and national-level data, and compared the national-level (NIP) infant denominators with other official sources. A standardized questionnaire was used to evaluate system performance at the operational (vaccination center), department, and national level. Rapid house-to-house monitoring was conducted to generate additional coverage estimates. RESULTS: Numerator accuracy throughout the data flow was 100%, and national-level denominators appeared to be exhaustive. Overall system performance was excellent (proper archiving and recording of form data, sufficient supply of forms, timely flow of information, adequate defaulter tracing practices and computer system security). The main weaknesses were the degree of data analysis and feedback to peripheral levels. House-to-house monitoring showed high overall immunization coverage (97%). CONCLUSION: Uruguay's NIP registration system produces remarkably reliable information, ensuring valid measurement of immunization coverage. In addition, by allowing for monitoring of each child's current vaccination status, it facilitates management of interventions designed to reduce vaccination default and thus helps achieve the country's high level of coverage.

          Translated abstract

          OBJETIVOS: El sistema de registro nominal del programa nacional de vacunación (PNV) de Uruguay registra las vacunas administradas en un modelo en papel que se llena después de cada vacunación y se introduce en una base de datos nacional, lo que permite el seguimiento individual. En este estudio, realizado en noviembre de 2006, se hizo un análisis integral de la calidad de los datos de vacunación en Uruguay para evaluar la validez de la información y confirmar la alta cobertura nacional de vacunación informada por el programa. MÉTODOS: Se analizó la concordancia de los numeradores operacionales (datos de vacunación infantil de 18 centros de vacunación públicos y privados de seis departamentos del país) con los datos departamentales y nacionales, y se compararon los denominadores del PNV infantil a nivel nacional con los de otras fuentes oficiales. Se empleó un cuestionario estandarizado para evaluar el desempeño del sistema en los niveles operacional (centros de vacunación), departamental y nacional. Se realizó un monitoreo rápido de casa en casa para obtener estimados adicionales de la cobertura. RESULTADOS: La precisión de los numeradores en todo el flujo de datos fue de 100% y los denominadores a nivel nacional al parecer eran exhaustivos. El desempeño general del sistema fue excelente (archivo y registro adecuados de los datos, suministro suficiente de modelos, flujo oportuno de información, práctica adecuada de rastreo de fallas y sistema apropiado de seguridad informática). Las principales debilidades fueron el grado de análisis de los datos y la retroalimentación a las instancias periféricas. El monitoreo de casa en casa mostró una alta cobertura general de vacunación (97%). CONCLUSIONES: El sistema uruguayo de registro del PNV genera una información notablemente confiable, lo que asegura la validez de la medición de la cobertura de vacunación. Además, al permitir el monitoreo del estado de vacunación actual de cada niño, facilita la aplicación y el control de intervenciones diseñadas para reducir las omisiones en la vacunación y ayudar así a alcanzar un alto nivel de cobertura en el país.

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          Most cited references 22

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            Assessment of delay in age-appropriate vaccination using survival analysis.

            Assessment of delay in age-appropriate vaccination provides more information about timeliness of vaccination than up-to-date vaccination coverage. The authors applied survival analysis methods to data from a vaccination coverage survey among children aged 13-59 months conducted in Argentina in 2002. By age 19 months, 43% of children (95% confidence interval (CI): 40, 46) were vaccinated with the fourth dose of diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTP4). By age 13 months, 55% of children (95% CI: 52, 57) were vaccinated with measles-containing vaccine. By age 7 months, 33% of children (95% CI: 27, 40) were vaccinated with the third dose of hepatitis B. Compared with firstborn children, third children were more likely to be delayed for DTP4 (relative risk (RR) = 1.41, 95% CI: 1.22, 1.62), measles-containing vaccine (RR = 1.54, 95% CI: 1.32, 1.78), and the third dose of hepatitis B (RR = 1.31, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.67). Children whose caregivers had completed secondary school were less likely to be delayed for DTP4 (RR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.52, 0.90) compared with those whose caregivers had not completed primary school. Survival analysis methods were helpful in measuring vaccine uptake and should be considered in future surveys when assessing delay in age-appropriate vaccination.
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              The immunization data quality audit: verifying the quality and consistency of immunization monitoring systems.

              To evaluate the consistency and quality of immunization monitoring systems in 27 countries during 2002-03 using standardized data quality audits (DQAs) that had been launched within the framework of the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization. The consistency of reporting systems was estimated by determining the proportion of third doses of diphtheria-tetanuspertussis (DTP-3) vaccine reported as being administered that could be verified by written documentation at health facilities and districts. The quality of monitoring systems was measured using quality indices for different components of the monitoring systems. These indices were applied to each level of the health service (health unit, district and national). The proportion of verified DTP-3 doses was lower than 85% in 16 countries. Difficulties in verifying the doses administered often arose at the peripheral level of the health service, usually as the result of discrepancies in information between health units and their corresponding districts or because completed recording forms were not available from health units. All countries had weaknesses in their monitoring systems; these included the inconsistent use of monitoring charts; inadequate monitoring of vaccine stocks, injection supplies and adverse events; unsafe computer practices; and poor monitoring of completeness and timeliness of reporting. Inconsistencies in immunization data occur in many countries, hampering their ability to manage their immunization programmes. Countries should use these findings to strengthen monitoring systems so that data can reliably guide programme activities. The DQA is an innovative tool that provides a way to independently assess the quality of immunization monitoring systems at all levels of a health service and serves as a point of entry to make improvements. It provides a useful example for other global health initiatives.

                Author and article information

                Revista Panamericana de Salud Pública
                Rev Panam Salud Publica
                Organización Panamericana de la Salud (Washington, Washington, United States )
                August 2009
                : 26
                : 2
                : 153-160
                Geneva Switzerland orgnameWorld Health Organization orgdiv1Expanded Programme of Immunizationv
                Montevideo orgnameComisión Honoraria para la Lucha Antituberculosa y Enfermedades Prevalentes Uruguay
                Washington DC orgnamePan American Health Organization United States of America
                S1020-49892009000800008 S1020-4989(09)02600208

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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