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Abdominal compartment syndrome

F1000 Medicine Reports

Medicine Reports

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      Abstract

      The abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) was first described in surgical patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm repair, trauma, bleeding, or infection, but in recent years it has also been described in patients with other pathologies such as burn injury and sepsis and in medical patients. This F1000 Medicine Report is intended to provide critical care physicians a clear insight into the current state of knowledge regarding intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and ACS, and will focus primarily on the recent literature as well as on the definitions and recommendations published by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The definitions regarding increased intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) will be listed, followed by a brief but comprehensive overview of the different mechanisms of organ dysfunction associated with IAH. The gold standard measurement technique for IAP as well as recommendations for organ function support in patients with IAH and options for medical and surgical treatment of IAH and ACS will be discussed.

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      Results from the International Conference of Experts on Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. I. Definitions.

      Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have been increasingly recognized in the critically ill over the past decade. The variety of definitions proposed has led to confusion and difficulty in comparing one study to another. An international consensus group of critical care specialists convened at the second World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome to standardize definitions for IAH and ACS based upon the current understanding of the pathophysiology surrounding these two syndromes. Prior to the conference the authors developed a blueprint for the various definitions, which was further refined both during and after the conference. The present article serves as the final report of the 2004 International ACS Consensus Definitions Conference and is endorsed by the World Society of Abdominal Compartment Syndrome (WSACS). IAH is redefined as an intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) at or above 12 mmHg. ACS is redefined as an IAP above 20 mmHg with evidence of organ dysfunction/failure. ACS is further classified as either primary, secondary, or recurrent based upon the duration and cause of the IAH-induced organ failure. Standards for IAP monitoring are set forth to facilitate accuracy of IAP measurements from patient to patient. State-of-the-art definitions for IAH and ACS are proposed based upon current medical evidence as well as expert opinion. The WSACS recommends that these definitions be used for future clinical and basic science research. Specific guidelines and recommendations for clinical management of patients with IAH/ACS are published in a separate review.
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        Results from the International Conference of Experts on Intra-abdominal Hypertension and Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. II. Recommendations.

        Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) and abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) have been increasingly recognized in the critically ill over the past decade. In the absence of consensus definitions and treatment guidelines the diagnosis and management of IAH and ACS remains variable from institution to institution. An international consensus group of multidisciplinary critical care specialists convened at the second World Congress on Abdominal Compartment Syndrome to develop practice guidelines for the diagnosis, management, and prevention of IAH and ACS. Prior to the conference the authors developed a blueprint for consensus definitions and treatment guidelines which were refined both during and after the conference. The present article is the second installment of the final report from the 2004 International ACS Consensus Definitions Conference and is endorsed by the World Society of the Abdominal Compartment Syndrome. The prevalence and etiological factors for IAH and ACS are reviewed. Evidence-based medicine treatment guidelines are presented to facilitate the diagnosis and management of IAH and ACS. Recommendations to guide future studies are proposed. These definitions, guidelines, and recommendations, based upon current best evidence and expert opinion are proposed to assist clinicians in the management of IAH and ACS as well as serve as a reference for future clinical and basic science research.
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          Different techniques to measure intra-abdominal pressure (IAP): time for a critical re-appraisal.

           Manu Malbrain (2004)
          The diagnosis of intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) or abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) is heavily dependent on the reproducibility of the intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) measurement technique. Recent studies have shown that a clinical estimation of IAP by abdominal girth or by examiner's feel of the tenseness of the abdomen is far from accurate, with a sensitivity of around 40%. Consequently, the IAP needs to be measured with a more accurate, reproducible and reliable tool. The role of the intra-vesical pressure (IVP) as the gold standard for IAP has become a matter of debate. This review will focus on the previously described indirect IAP measurement techniques and will suggest new revised methods of IVP measurement less prone to error. Cost-effective manometry screening techniques will be discussed, as well as some options for the future with microchip transducers.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            10.3410/M1-86
            2948339
            20948692

            http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/legalcode

            Medicine

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