+1 Recommend
1 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Selection and Characterization of a Novel DNA Aptamer, Apt-07S Specific to Hepatocellular Carcinoma Cells

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          The efficacy of traditional therapeutic methods for liver cancer is unsatisfying because of the poor targeting, and inefficient drug delivery system. A recent study has proven that aptamers, developed through cell-SELEX, could specifically recognize cancer cells and show great potential in the development of a delivery system for anticancer drugs.


          To develop a hepatocellular carcinoma specific aptamer using two kinds of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines, HepG 2 and SMMC-7721, as double targets and a normal hepatocyte, L02, as a negative control cell.


          Hepatocellular carcinoma specific aptamer was developed via cell-SELEX. The enrichment of the library was monitored by flow cytometric analysis. The specificity, affinity, and distribution of the candidate aptamer were explored. Further study was carried to assess its potential in drug delivery.


          The library was enriched after 14 rounds of screening. Candidate aptamer Apt-07S can recognize four kinds of hepatocellular carcinoma cells and show little cell-binding ability to normal cells and four cell lines of different cancer types, revealing a high specificity of Apt-07S. Confocal imaging showed that Apt-07S distributed both on the surface and in the cytoplasm of the two target cells. Moreover, an anti-sense nucleotide to gene Plk1 (ASO-Plk1) was connected at the 3ʹ end of Apt-07S to form an integrated molecule (Apt-07S-ASO-Plk1); the functional analysis indicated that the structure of Apt-07S may help ASO-Plk1 enter the cancer cells.


          The study indicates that Apt-07S can specifically target HCC and may have potential in the delivery of anticancer drugs.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 32

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          CD133 positive hepatocellular carcinoma cells possess high capacity for tumorigenicity.

          Recently increasing reported data have suggested that only a small subset of cancer cells possess capability to initiate malignancies including leukemia and solid tumors, which was based on investigation in these cells displaying a distinct surface marker pattern within the primary cancers. CD133 is a putative hematopoietic and neuronal stem-cell marker, which was also considered as a tumorigenic marker in brain and prostate cancer. We hypothesized that CD133 was a marker closely correlated with tumorigenicity, since it was reported that CD133 expressed in human fetal liver and repairing liver tissues, which tightly associated with hepatocarcinogenesis. Our findings showed that a small population of CD133 positive cells indeed exists in human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cell lines and primary HCC tissues. From SMMC-7721 cell line, CD133+ cells isolated by MACS manifested high tumorigenecity and clonogenicity as compared with CD133- HCC cells. The implication that CD133 might be one of the markers for HCC cancer stem-like cells needed further investigation. (c) 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Updated treatment approach to hepatocellular carcinoma.

             Josep Llovet (2005)
            Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fifth most common cancer worldwide, and its incidence will further increase, to reach a plateau in 2015-2020. The natural history of the disease is quite well known, except for its early stages, because the majority of patients at this stage are treated with radical approaches. Staging systems are key to predict the prognostics of patients with cancer, to stratify the patients according to prognostic variables in the setting of clinical trials, and to guide the therapeutic approach. The current knowledge of the disease, however, is not sufficient for recommending a staging system to be used worldwide. The conventional staging systems-Okuda stage, and TNM stage-have shown important limitations for classifying patients. Several new systems have been recently proposed, but only three of them have been validated. The Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer (BCLC) staging classification links the stage of the disease to a specific treatment strategy. The Japan Integrated Staging (JIS) score has been proposed and used in Japan, although it needs Western validation. The Cancer of the Liver Italian Program (CLIP) score is mainly proposed for patients with advanced tumors. Early detection of HCC through surveillance programs allows the application of potentially curative therapies, such as resection, liver transplantation, and percutaneous ablation in patients with early tumors. The applicability of these treatments varies according to geographical distribution: from 50% to 70% of cases in Japan; 25% to 40% of cases in Europe and the United States; and fewer than 10% in Africa. There are no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing any of the three major therapies. These studies are not feasible in the West. Therefore, there is no firm evidence to establish the optimal first-line treatment for small single HCC in patients with well-preserved liver function. Resection and transplantation achieve the best outcomes in well-selected candidates (5-year survival of 60%-70%), and compete as the first option from an intention-to-treat perspective. If surgery is precluded, local, nonsurgical therapies are applied. Percutaneous treatments provide good results (5-year survival of 40%-50%), but are unable to achieve response rates and outcomes comparable to those for surgical treatments, even when applied as the first option. Radiofrequency thermal ablation provides slightly better objective response rates than ethanol injection, but no survival advantages have been fully demonstrated. The remaining treatments have been assessed in the setting of around 70 RCTs conducted during the past 25 years. Chemoembolization has been shown to provide modest survival advantages in two RCTs and a metaanalysis, and is currently the mainstay of treatment in 10% of the whole HCC population. The ideal candidates for this option are patients with well-preserved liver function (Child-Pugh class A) and multinodular asymptomatic tumors without vascular invasion. Further RCTs are needed to assess the best chemotherapeutic agent and the ideal re-treatment schedule. There is no firstline option for patients with advanced HCC (vascular invasion, extrahepatic spread, or cancer-related symptoms). Systemic doxorubicin provides partial responses in 10% of cases, without proven survival advantages, and well-known treatment-related complications. Several other treatments, such as immunotherapy, internal radiation, tamoxifen, or anti-androgen agents, have not shown any relevant anti-tumoral effect or survival benefit. New drugs, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and anti-angiogenic agents, are currently being tested in the setting of clinical trials.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              MicroRNA-195 suppresses angiogenesis and metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by inhibiting the expression of VEGF, VAV2, and CDC42.

              Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is characterized by active angiogenesis and metastasis, which account for rapid recurrence and poor survival. There is frequent down-regulation of miR-195 expression in HCC tissues. In this study, the role of miR-195 in HCC angiogenesis and metastasis was investigated with in vitro capillary tube formation and transwell assays, in vivo orthotopic xenograft mouse models, and human HCC specimens. Reduction of miR-195 in HCC tissues was significantly associated with increased angiogenesis, metastasis, and worse recurrence-free survival. Both gain-of-function and loss-of-function studies of in vitro models revealed that miR-195 not only suppressed the ability of HCC cells to promote the migration and capillary tube formation of endothelial cells but also directly repressed the abilities of HCC cells to migrate and invade extracellular matrix gel. Based on mouse models, we found that the induced expression of miR-195 dramatically reduced microvessel densities in xenograft tumors and repressed both intrahepatic and pulmonary metastasis. Subsequent investigations disclosed that miR-195 directly inhibited the expression of the proangiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and the prometastatic factors VAV2 and CDC42. Knockdown of these target molecules of miR-195 phenocopied the effects of miR-195 restoration, whereas overexpression of these targets antagonized the function of miR-195. Furthermore, we revealed that miR-195 down-regulation resulted in enhanced VEGF levels in the tumor microenvironment, which subsequently activated VEGF receptor 2 signaling in endothelial cells and thereby promoted angiogenesis. Additionally, miR-195 down-regulation led to increases in VAV2 and CDC42 expression, which stimulated VAV2/Rac1/CDC42 signaling and lamellipodia formation and thereby facilitated the metastasis of HCC cells. miR-195 deregulation contributes to angiogenesis and metastasis in HCC. The restoration of miR-195 expression may be a promising strategy for HCC therapy. Copyright © 2013 by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                20 April 2020
                : 14
                : 1535-1545
                [1 ]Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Basic Medical College, Qingdao University , Qingdao, Shandong Province 266071, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Integrative Medicine Research Center, Medical College, Qingdao University , Qingdao 266021, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Dermatology, Qingdao Municipal Hospital , Qingdao 266071, Shandong Province, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Yin-Lin Ge Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Basic Medical College, Qingdao University , 308 Ningxia Road, Qingdao266071, People’s Republic of China Email geyinlin@126.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2020 Yu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 2, References: 40, Pages: 11
                Original Research


                Comment on this article