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      A Monetary Reward Alters Pacing but Not Performance in Competitive Cyclists


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          Money has frequently been used as an extrinsic motivator since it is assumed that humans are willing to invest more effort for financial reward. However, the influence of a monetary reward on pacing and performance in trained athletes is not well-understood. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a monetary reward in well-trained cyclists on their pacing and performance during short and long cycling time trials (TT). Twentythree cyclists (6 ♀, 17 ♂) completed 4 self-paced time trials (TTs, 2 short: 4 km and 6 min; 2 long: 20 km and 30 min); in a randomized order. Participants were separated into parallel, non-randomized “rewarded” and “non-rewarded” groups. Cyclists in the rewarded group received a monetary reward based on highest mean power output across all TTs. Cyclists in the non-rewarded group did not receive a monetary reward. Overall performance was not significantly different between groups in short or long TTs ( p > 0.48). Power output showed moderatly lower effect sizes at comencement of the short TTs ( P meandiff = 36.6 W; d > 0.44) and the 20 km TT ( P meandiff = 22.6 W; d = 0.44) in the rewarded group. No difference was observed in pacing during the 30 min TT ( p = 0.95). An external reward seems to have influenced pacing at the commencement of time trials. Participants in the non-rewarded group adopted a typical parabolic shaped pattern, whereas participants in the rewarded group started trials more conservatively. Results raise the possibility that using money as an extrinsic reward may interfere with regulatory processes required for effective pacing.

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          Goals, attention, and (un)consciousness.

          In this article, literature from neuroscience, cognitive psychology, and social cognition is integrated to discuss the relation between goals, attention, and consciousness. Goals are the tools with which people engage in volitional behavior. Whereas goal pursuit was traditionally assumed to be strongly related to consciousness, recent research and theorizing suggest that goals guide behavior through attention, and this guidance can occur outside of a person's awareness. The crucial explanatory role of goals and attention in behavior, as well as the relative unimportance of consciousness, is examined in the context of social cognition research on goal priming. Furthermore, three research domains are discussed that are relevant for the understanding of the implementation of volitional behavior: implicit learning, evaluative conditioning, and unconscious thought. It is concluded that these processes are goal dependent and that they need attention, but that they can generally proceed without awareness. Finally, when people are consciously aware of their behavior or their goals, the effects can be beneficial as well as detrimental.
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            Psychological Determinants of Whole-Body Endurance Performance

            Background No literature reviews have systematically identified and evaluated research on the psychological determinants of endurance performance, and sport psychology performance enhancement guidelines for endurance sports are not founded on a systematic appraisal of endurance-specific research. Objective A systematic literature review was conducted to identify practical psychological interventions that improve endurance performance and to identify additional psychological factors that affect endurance performance. Additional objectives were to evaluate the research practices of the included studies, to suggest theoretical and applied implications, and to guide future research. Methods Electronic databases, forward-citation searches and manual searches of reference lists were used to locate relevant studies. Peer-reviewed studies were included when they chose an experimental or quasi-experimental research design; a psychological manipulation; endurance performance as the dependent variable; and athletes or physically active, healthy adults as participants. Results Consistent support was found for using imagery, self-talk and goal setting to improve endurance performance, but it is unclear whether learning multiple psychological skills is more beneficial than learning one psychological skill. The results also demonstrated that mental fatigue undermines endurance performance, and verbal encouragement and head-to-head competition can have a beneficial effect. Interventions that influenced perception of effort consistently affected endurance performance. Conclusions Psychological skills training could benefit an endurance athlete. Researchers are encouraged to compare different practical psychological interventions, to examine the effects of these interventions for athletes in competition and to include a placebo control condition or an alternative control treatment. Researchers are also encouraged to explore additional psychological factors that could have a negative effect on endurance performance. Future research should include psychological mediating variables and moderating variables. Implications for theoretical explanations for endurance performance and evidence-based practice are described. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0319-6) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.
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              The Role of Information Processing Between the Brain and Peripheral Physiological Systems in Pacing and Perception of Effort


                Author and article information

                Front Physiol
                Front Physiol
                Front. Physiol.
                Frontiers in Physiology
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                29 September 2017
                : 8
                : 741
                [1] 1Institute of Sports and Preventive Medicine, Saarland University , Saarbrücken, Germany
                [2] 2Research Institute for Sport and Exercise, University of Canberra , Bruce, ACT, Australia
                [3] 3Centre for Exercise and Sports Science Research, School of Exercise and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University , Joondalup, WA, Australia
                Author notes

                Edited by: Lee Taylor, Aspetar Orthopaedic and Sports Medicine Hospital, Qatar

                Reviewed by: Hollie S. Jones, University of Central Lancashire, United Kingdom; Toby Mündel, College of Health, Massey University, New Zealand

                *Correspondence: Sabrina Skorski s.skorski@ 123456mx.uni-saarland.de

                This article was submitted to Exercise Physiology, a section of the journal Frontiers in Physiology

                Copyright © 2017 Skorski, Thompson, Keegan, Meyer and Abbiss.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                : 24 July 2017
                : 11 September 2017
                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Equations: 0, References: 40, Pages: 11, Words: 9125
                Original Research

                Anatomy & Physiology
                cycling,time trial,motivation,extrinsic,monetary reward,pacing strategy
                Anatomy & Physiology
                cycling, time trial, motivation, extrinsic, monetary reward, pacing strategy


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