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      Porous Carbon Networks Derived From Graphitic Carbon Nitride for Efficient Oxygen Reduction Reaction

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          Abstract

          Great efforts have been dedicated to finding economic and efficient oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) for fuel cell technology. Among various catalysts, N-doped carbon-based nanomaterials have attracted much attention due to low-cost, noble metal free, and good durability. Herein, we developed a facile and economic strategy to prepare nitrogen-doped carbon networks for efficient ORR application. The g-C 3N 4 is used as the template and N source, and dopamine is used as the carbon source. By simple hydrothermal treatment and sintering, N-doped carbon network structures with high specific surface area, effective ORR activity, and superior durability could be acquired. The present strategy is free of involving generally multistep, poisonous reagents, and complication of removing template for fabrication of 3D carbon structures.

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          The online version of this article (10.1186/s11671-019-3073-0) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Raman spectra of graphite oxide and functionalized graphene sheets.

          We investigate Raman spectra of graphite oxide and functionalized graphene sheets with epoxy and hydroxyl groups and Stone-Wales and 5-8-5 defects by first-principles calculations to interpret our experimental results. Only the alternating pattern of single-double carbon bonds within the sp2 carbon ribbons provides a satisfactory explanation for the experimentally observed blue shift of the G band of the Raman spectra relative to graphite. To obtain these single-double bonds, it is necessary to have sp3 carbons on the edges of a zigzag carbon ribbon.
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            A metal-free bifunctional electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction and oxygen evolution reactions.

            The oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) and oxygen evolution reaction (OER) are traditionally carried out with noble metals (such as Pt) and metal oxides (such as RuO₂ and MnO₂) as catalysts, respectively. However, these metal-based catalysts often suffer from multiple disadvantages, including high cost, low selectivity, poor stability and detrimental environmental effects. Here, we describe a mesoporous carbon foam co-doped with nitrogen and phosphorus that has a large surface area of ∼1,663 m(2) g(-1) and good electrocatalytic properties for both ORR and OER. This material was fabricated using a scalable, one-step process involving the pyrolysis of a polyaniline aerogel synthesized in the presence of phytic acid. We then tested the suitability of this N,P-doped carbon foam as an air electrode for primary and rechargeable Zn-air batteries. Primary batteries demonstrated an open-circuit potential of 1.48 V, a specific capacity of 735 mAh gZn(-1) (corresponding to an energy density of 835 Wh kgZn(-1)), a peak power density of 55 mW cm(-2), and stable operation for 240 h after mechanical recharging. Two-electrode rechargeable batteries could be cycled stably for 180 cycles at 2 mA cm(-2). We also examine the activity of our carbon foam for both OER and ORR independently, in a three-electrode configuration, and discuss ways in which the Zn-air battery can be further improved. Finally, our density functional theory calculations reveal that the N,P co-doping and graphene edge effects are essential for the bifunctional electrocatalytic activity of our material.
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              A review on non-precious metal electrocatalysts for PEM fuel cells

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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.440668.8, Key Laboratory of Advanced Structural Materials, Ministry of Education & Advanced Institute of Materials Science, , Changchun University of Technology, ; Changchun, Changchun, 130012 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000000119573309, GRID grid.9227.e, State Key Laboratory of Luminescence and Applications, Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine Mechanics and Physics, , Chinese Academy of Sciences, ; Changchun, 130012 China
                Contributors
                1831764653@qq.com
                +86-0431-85716577 , lixuesong@ccut.edu.cn
                sunxj@ciomp.ac.cn
                dlut417@163.com
                duanlf@ccut.edu.cn
                yangxijia@ccut.edu.cn
                wangliying@ccut.edu.cn
                ORCID: http://orcid.org/0000-0002-7070-8456, +86-0431-85716577 , lw771119@hotmail.com
                Journal
                Nanoscale Res Lett
                Nanoscale Res Lett
                Nanoscale Research Letters
                Springer US (New York )
                1931-7573
                1556-276X
                24 July 2019
                24 July 2019
                2019
                : 14
                31342197 6656852 3073 10.1186/s11671-019-3073-0
                © The Author(s). 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China;
                Award ID: 61604017, 61574021, and 61774022
                Categories
                Nano Express
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

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