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      Significantly enhanced osteoblast response to nano-grained pure tantalum

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          Abstract

          Tantalum (Ta) metal is receiving increasing interest as biomaterial for load-bearing orthopedic applications and the synthetic properties of Ta can be tailored by altering its grain structures. This study evaluates the capability of sliding friction treatment (SFT) technique to modulate the comprehensive performances of pure Ta. Specifically, novel nanocrystalline (NC) surface with extremely small grains (average grain size of ≤20 nm) was fabricated on conventional coarse-grained (CG) Ta by SFT. It shows that NC surface possessed higher surface hydrophilicity and enhanced corrosion resistance than CG surface. Additionally, the NC surface adsorbed a notably higher percentage of protein as compared to CG surface. The in vitro results indicated that in the initial culture stages (up to 24 h), the NC surface exhibited considerably enhanced osteoblast adherence and spreading, consistent with demonstrated superior hydrophilicity on NC surface. Furthermore, within the 14 days culture period, NC Ta surface exhibited a remarkable enhancement in osteoblast cell proliferation, maturation and mineralization as compared to CG surface. Ultimately, the improved osteoblast functions together with the good mechanical and anti-corrosion properties render the SFT-processed Ta a promising alternative for the load-bearing bone implant applications.

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          The interaction of cells and bacteria with surfaces structured at the nanometre scale.

          The current development of nanobiotechnologies requires a better understanding of cell-surface interactions on the nanometre scale. Recently, advances in nanoscale patterning and detection have allowed the fabrication of appropriate substrates and the study of cell-substrate interactions. In this review we discuss the methods currently available for nanoscale patterning and their merits, as well as techniques for controlling the surface chemistry of materials at the nanoscale without changing the nanotopography and the possibility of truly characterizing the surface chemistry at the nanoscale. We then discuss the current knowledge of how a cell can interact with a substrate at the nanoscale and the effect of size, morphology, organization and separation of nanofeatures on cell response. Moreover, cell-substrate interactions are mediated by the presence of proteins adsorbed from biological fluids on the substrate. Many questions remain on the effect of nanotopography on protein adsorption. We review papers related to this point. As all these parameters have an influence on cell response, it is important to develop specific studies to point out their relative influence, as well as the biological mechanisms underlying cell responses to nanotopography. This will be the basis for future research in this field. An important topic in tissue engineering is the effect of nanoscale topography on bacteria, since cells have to compete with bacteria in many environments. The limited current knowledge of this topic is also discussed in the light of using topography to encourage cell adhesion while limiting bacterial adhesion. We also discuss current and prospective applications of cell-surface interactions on the nanoscale. Finally, based on questions raised previously that remain to be solved in the field, we propose future directions of research in materials science to help elucidate the relative influence of the physical and chemical aspects of nanotopography on bacteria and cell response with the aim of contributing to the development of nanobiotechnologies. 2010 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Is the lotus leaf superhydrophobic?

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              Influence of substratum surface chemistry/energy and topography on the human fetal osteoblastic cell line hFOB 1.19: Phenotypic and genotypic responses observed in vitro.

              Time-dependent phenotypic response of a model osteoblast cell line (hFOB 1.19, ATCC, and CRL-11372) to substrata with varying surface chemistry and topography is reviewed within the context of extant cell-adhesion theory. Cell-attachment and proliferation kinetics are compared using morphology as a leading indicator of cell phenotype. Expression of (alpha2, alpha3, alpha4, alpha5, alphav, beta1, and beta3) integrins, vinculin, as well as secretion of osteopontin (OP) and type I collagen (Col I) supplement this visual assessment of hFOB growth. It is concluded that significant cell-adhesion events-contact, attachment, spreading, and proliferation-are similar on all surfaces, independent of substratum surface chemistry/energy. However, this sequence of events is significantly delayed and attenuated on hydrophobic (poorly water-wettable) surfaces exhibiting characteristically low-attachment efficiency and long induction periods before cells engage in an exponential-growth phase. Results suggest that a 'time-cell-substratum-compatibility-superposition principle' is at work wherein similar bioadhesive outcomes can be ultimately achieved on all surface types with varying hydrophilicity, but the time required to arrive at this outcome increases with decreasing cell-substratum-compatibility. Genomic and proteomic tools offer unprecedented opportunity to directly measure changes in the cellular machinery that lead to observed cell responses to different materials. But for the purpose of measuring structure-property relationships that can guide biomaterial development, genomic/proteomic tools should be applied early in the adhesion/spreading process before cells have an opportunity to significantly remodel the cell-substratum interface, effectively erasing cause and effect relationships between cell-substratum-compatibility and substratum properties. IMPACT STATEMENT: This review quantifies relationships among cell phenotype, substratum surface chemistry/energy, topography, and cell-substratum contact time for the model osteoblast cell line hFOB 1.19, revealing that genomic/proteomic tools are most useful in the pursuit of understanding cell adhesion if applied early in the adhesion/spreading process.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group
                2045-2322
                13 January 2017
                2017
                : 7
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Northwest Institute for Nonferrous Metal Research , Xi’an 710016, China
                [2 ]State key Laboratory of Military Stomatology, Department of Periodontology, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University , Xi’an 710032, China
                Author notes
                Article
                srep40868
                10.1038/srep40868
                5233963
                28084454
                Copyright © 2017, The Author(s)

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in the credit line; if the material is not included under the Creative Commons license, users will need to obtain permission from the license holder to reproduce the material. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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