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      Successful revascularization versus medical therapy in diabetic patients with stable right coronary artery chronic total occlusion: a retrospective cohort study


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          The territory of the right coronary artery (RCA) is smaller than that of the left anterior descending artery. Previous studies have reported conflicting results when considering whether stable RCA-chronic total occlusion (CTO) should be reopened. The coexistence of diabetic and coronary artery diseases represents a severe situation. Therefore, we aimed to determine if stable RCA-CTO in diabetic patients was necessary to be reopened. To our knowledge, no studies have focused on this topic to date.


          We enrolled diabetic patients with RCA-CTO who had clinical presentations of symptomatic stable angina or silent ischemia. RCA-CTO was treated with either successful revascularization (the CTO-SR group) or medical therapy (the CTO-MT group). The primary endpoint was all-cause death. Both Cox regression and propensity score matching analyses were used. Sensitivity analysis was performed based on subgroup populations and relevant baseline variables.


          A total of 943 patients were included: 443 (46.98%) patients in the CTO-MT group and 500 (53.02%) patients in the CTO-SR group. After a mid-term follow-up (CTO-SR: 48 months; CTO-MT: 42 months), we found that CTO-SR was superior to CTO-MT in terms of all-cause death (adjusted hazard ratio [HR] [model 1]: 0.429, 95% conference interval [CI] 0.269–0.682; adjusted HR [model 2]: 0.445, 95% CI 0.278–0.714). The superiority of CTO-SR was consistent for cardiac death, possible/definite cardiac death, repeat revascularization, target vessel revascularization (TVR) and repeat nonfatal myocardial infarction. Subgroup analysis confirmed the mortality benefit of CTO-SR by percutaneous coronary intervention (the successful CTO-PCI subgroup, 309 patients in total). While CTO-SR by coronary artery bypass grafting (the CTO-CABG subgroup, 191 patients in total) offered patients more benefit from repeat revascularization and TVR than that offered by successful CTO-PCI.


          For stable RCA-CTO patients with diabetes, successful revascularization offered patients more clinical benefits than medical therapy. CTO-CABG might be a more recommended way to accomplish revascularization.

          Trial registration This study was not registered in an open access database

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (10.1186/s12933-019-0911-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references40

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          Meta-analysis of clinical outcomes of patients who underwent percutaneous coronary interventions for chronic total occlusions.

          Successful percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) for chronic total occlusions (CTOs) has been associated with clinical benefit. There are no randomized controlled trials on long-term clinical outcomes after CTO PCI, limiting the available evidence to observational cohort studies. We sought to perform a weighted meta-analysis of the long-term outcomes of successful versus failed CTO PCI. A total of 25 studies, published from 1990 to 2014, with 28,486 patients (29,315 CTO PCI procedures) were included. We analyzed data on mortality, subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), myocardial infarction, major adverse cardiac events, angina pectoris, stroke, and target vessel revascularization using random-effects models. Procedural success was 71% (range 51% to 87%). During a weighted mean follow-up of 3.11 years, compared with unsuccessful, successful CTO PCI was associated with lower mortality (odds ratio [OR] 0.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.43 to 0.63), less residual angina (OR 0.38, 95% CI 0.24 to 0.60), lower risk for stroke (OR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60 to 0.88), less need for subsequent coronary artery bypass grafting (OR 0.18, 95% CI 0.14 to 0.22), and lower risk for major adverse cardiac events (0.59, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.79). There was no difference in the incidence of target vessel revascularization (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.36 to 1.23) or myocardial infarction (OR 0.73, 95% CI 0.52 to 1.03). Outcomes were similar in patients who underwent balloon angioplasty only or stenting with bare metal or drug-eluting stents. Compared with failed procedures, successful CTO PCIs are associated with a lower risk of death, stroke, and coronary artery bypass grafting and less recurrent angina pectoris.
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            Early Procedural and Health Status Outcomes After Chronic Total Occlusion Angioplasty: A Report From the OPEN-CTO Registry (Outcomes, Patient Health Status, and Efficiency in Chronic Total Occlusion Hybrid Procedures).

            This study sought to accurately describe the success rate, risks, and patient-reported benefits of contemporary chronic total occlusion (CTO) percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI).
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              Long-term clinical outcomes of biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents versus durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with coronary artery disease (LEADERS): 4 year follow-up of a randomised non-inferiority trial.

              The effectiveness of durable polymer drug-eluting stents comes at the expense of delayed arterial healing and subsequent late adverse events such as stent thrombosis (ST). We report the 4 year follow-up of an assessment of biodegradable polymer-based drug-eluting stents, which aim to improve safety by avoiding the persistent inflammatory stimulus of durable polymers. We did a multicentre, assessor-masked, non-inferiority trial. Between Nov 27, 2006, and May 18, 2007, patients aged 18 years or older with coronary artery disease were randomly allocated with a computer-generated sequence to receive either biodegradable polymer biolimus-eluting stents (BES) or durable polymer sirolimus-eluting stents (SES; 1:1 ratio). The primary endpoint was a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction, or clinically-indicated target vessel revascularisation (TVR); patients were followed-up for 4 years. Analysis was by intention to treat. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00389220. 1707 patients with 2472 lesions were randomly allocated to receive either biodegradable polymer BES (857 patients, 1257 lesions) or durable polymer SES (850 patients, 1215 lesions). At 4 years, biodegradable polymer BES were non-inferior to durable polymer SES for the primary endpoint: 160 (18·7%) patients versus 192 (22·6%) patients (rate ratios [RR] 0·81, 95% CI 0·66-1·00, p for non-inferiority <0·0001, p for superiority=0·050). The RR of definite ST was 0·62 (0·35-1·08, p=0·09), which was largely attributable to a lower risk of very late definite ST between years 1 and 4 in the BES group than in the SES group (RR 0·20, 95% CI 0·06-0·67, p=0·004). Conversely, the RR of definite ST during the first year was 0·99 (0·51-1·95; p=0·98) and the test for interaction between RR of definite ST and time was positive (p(interaction)=0·017). We recorded an interaction with time for events associated with ST but not for other events. For primary endpoint events associated with ST, the RR was 0·86 (0·41-1·80) during the first year and 0·17 (0·04-0·78) during subsequent years (p(interaction)=0·049). Biodegradable polymer BES are non-inferior to durable polymer SES and, by reducing the risk of cardiac events associated with very late ST, might improve long-term clinical outcomes for up to 4 years compared with durable polymer SES. Biosensors Europe SA, Switzerland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

                Author and article information

                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovasc Diabetol
                Cardiovascular Diabetology
                BioMed Central (London )
                21 August 2019
                21 August 2019
                : 18
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0369 153X, GRID grid.24696.3f, Department of Cardiology, , Beijing Anzhen Hospital, Capital Medical University, Beijing Institute of Heart, Lung and Blood Vessel Diseases, ; 2 Anzhen Road, Chaoyang District, Beijing, 100029 China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1761 8894, GRID grid.414252.4, Department of Cardiology, , Emergency General Hospital, ; 29 Xibahe Nanli, Chaoyang District, Beijing, China
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: the Ministry of Science and Technology of the People’s Republic of China, State Science and Technology Support Program
                Award ID: No.2011BAI11B05
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: Beijing Lab for Cardiovascular Precision Medicine
                Award ID: PXM2019_014226_000023
                Award Recipient :
                Original Investigation
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2019

                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                chronic total occlusion,diabetes,revascularization,medical therapy
                Endocrinology & Diabetes
                chronic total occlusion, diabetes, revascularization, medical therapy


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