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      Predialysis NTproBNP Predicts Magnitude of Extracellular Volume Overload in Haemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Introduction: Increased natriuretic peptides are associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality for haemodialysis (HD) patients. However, debate continues whether these biomarkers are increased by extracellular water (ECW) excess and can be used to aid clinical assessment of volume status and help determine target weight. Methods: We measured N terminal probrain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) predialysis in 375 stable haemodialysis outpatients with corresponding pre and postdialysis multifrequency bioelectrical impedance assessments (MFBIA) of (ECW)/total body water (TBW). Results: Median age 64 (51-75), 63.9% male, 42.9% diabetic, 43.2% Caucasoid, 14.4% with a history of myocardial infarction, 8.4% coronary artery bypass surgery, dialysis vintage 28.2 (12.3-55.5) months. Median predialysis NT-proBNP 283 (123-989) pmol/l, and predialysis ECW/TBW ratio 0.397 ± 0.029. On multivariate analysis, predialysis log NT-proBNP was associated with predialysis systolic blood pressure (β 0.007, p = 0.000), weight (β −0.008, p = 0.001), valvular heart disease (β 0.342, p = 0.015, ECW/TBW (β 1.3, p = 0.019) and log CRP (β 0.145, p = 0.037). Dividing patients into NTproBNP quartiles, %ECW/TBW and relative ECW overhydration were significantly greater for the highest quartile vs. lowest (40.5 ± 4.1 vs. 39.0 ± 1.1, and 1.51 ± 1.24 vs. 0.61 ± 0.69 l, respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusion: In this study, predialysis NTproBNP values were associated with direct assessments of the extracellular volume excess measured by MFBIA and systolic arterial blood pressure. This suggests that predialysis NTproBNP values can potentially be used to aid clinical assessment of volume status in dialysis patients to determine target weight.

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          Most cited references 18

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          Impact of body mass and body composition on circulating levels of natriuretic peptides: results from the Dallas Heart Study.

          The association between higher body mass index (BMI) and lower B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) level is thought to be mediated by expression of the natriuretic peptide clearance receptor (NPR-C) in adipose tissue. To explore this association, we tested 2 hypotheses: (1) that N-terminal (NT)-proBNP, which is not believed to bind NPR-C, would not be associated with BMI and (2) that lower BNP would be more closely associated with fat mass than with lean mass. Measurements of BNP, NT-proBNP, and body composition by direct dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were performed in 2707 subjects from the Dallas Heart Study. The associations between obesity and low BNP (<4 ng/L) or low NT-proBNP (lowest sex-specific quartile) were evaluated with multivariable logistic regression models stratified by sex and adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, hypertension, left ventricular mass, and end-diastolic volume. Higher BMI was independently associated with lower BNP and NT-proBNP (all P<0.001). When BMI was replaced with both DEXA-derived lean and fat mass, greater lean mass, but not fat mass, was associated with low BNP and NT-proBNP levels. In a large, population-based cohort, we confirm the previously described association between higher BMI and lower BNP and demonstrate a similar inverse association between BMI and NT-proBNP. Interestingly, both BNP and NT-proBNP are more closely associated with lean mass than with fat mass. These findings do not support the hypothesis that the lower BNP levels seen in obesity are driven by enhanced BNP clearance mediated via NPR-C.
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            Accuracy of an eight-point tactile-electrode impedance method in the assessment of total body water.

            To establish the accuracy of an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance method in the assessment of total body water (TBW). Transversal study. University department. Fifty healthy subjects (25 men and 25 women) with a mean (s.d.) age of 40 (12) y. TBW measured by deuterium oxide dilution; resistance (R) of arms, trunk and legs measured at frequencies of 5, 50, 250 and 500 kHz with an eight-polar tactile-electrode impedance-meter (InBody 3.0, Biospace, Seoul, Korea). An algorithm for the prediction of TBW from the whole-body resistance index at 500 kHz (height (2)/R(500) where R is the sum of the segmental resistances of arms, trunk and legs) was developed in a randomly chosen subsample of 35 subjects. This algorithm had an adjusted coefficient of determination (r2(adj)) of 0.81 (P<0.0001) and a root mean square error (RMSE) of 3.6 l (9%). Cross-validation of the predictive algorithm in the remaining 15 subjects gave an r2(adj) of 0.87 (P<0.0001) and an RMSE of 3.0 l (8%). The precision of eight-polar BIA, determined by measuring R three times a day for five consecutive days in a fasting subject, was < or =2.8% for all segments and frequencies. Eight-polar BIA is a precise method that offers accurate estimates of TBW in healthy subjects. This promising method should undergo further studies of precision and its accuracy in assessing extracellular water and appendicular body composition should be determined. Modena and Reggio Emilia University.
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              Inflammation, overhydration and cardiac biomarkers in haemodialysis patients: a longitudinal study.

              Inflammation, overhydration and elevated cardiac biomarkers are related to outcome in haemodialysis (HD) patients. Here, we explored the relationship between the body composition (BC), inflammation and cardiac biomarker concentrations in HD patients longitudinally. A total of 44 HD patients were followed for 6 months. BC was assessed by multifrequency bioimpedance (BIA). Serum concentrations of cardiac troponin T (cTnT), high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP), brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP) were assessed at 2 monthly intervals. The longitudinal data analysis was conducted with a marginal model. During the follow-up, the parameters describing the BC were highly predictive of both BNP and NT-proBNP and independent of gender, time, hsCRP and cTnT concentrations. The intracellular water (ICW)/body weight (BW) ratio (reflecting malnutrition) exerted a negative effect, whereas the extracellular water (ECW)/BW ratio (reflecting overhydration) had a positive effect on BNP and NT-proBNP concentrations. HsCRP and cTnT concentrations were significantly associated with each other. Furthermore, NT-proBNP concentrations were predictive of cTnT and hsCRP concentrations. In the present study, we find a significant relation between BIA-derived BC parameters and natriuretic peptide concentrations. This relationship was independent of the cardiac history of the patient and suggests that the natriuretic peptide levels are to some degree modifiable by changing a patient's fluid distribution. Moreover, cTnT, BNP, NT-proBNP and hsCRP were significantly related, showing a complex relation between overhydration, malnutrition, inflammation and cardiac biomarkers in dialysis patients.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                October 2014
                14 October 2014
                : 40
                : 3
                : 251-257
                Affiliations
                aRenal Unit, Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital, Mahidol University, Bangkok, bBumrungrad International Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand; cUCL Centre for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, University College London Medical School, London, UK
                Author notes
                *A. Davenport, UCL Centre for Nephrology, Royal Free Hospital, University College London Medical School, Rowland Hill Street, London NW3 2PF (UK), E-Mail andrewdavenport@nhs.uk
                Article
                368376 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:251-257
                10.1159/000368376
                25322897
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Open Access License: This is an Open Access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported license (CC BY-NC) ( http://www.karger.com/OA-license), applicable to the online version of the article only. Distribution permitted for non-commercial purposes only. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 3, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Bioimpedance, Extracellular fluid volume, Haemodialysis, NT-proBNP

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