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      Scholars’ open debate paper on the World Health Organization ICD-11 Gaming Disorder proposal

      1 , 2 , 3 , 4 , * , 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 , 9 , 10 , * , 11 , 12 , 13 , 14 , 15 , * , 16 , 17 , 1 , 18 , , 19 , * , 20 , 21 , 22 , 23 , 24 , 24 , *

      Journal of Behavioral Addictions

      Akadémiai Kiadó

      gaming disorder, ICD-11, DSM-5, diagnosis, moral panic, negative implications

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          Concerns about problematic gaming behaviors deserve our full attention. However, we claim that it is far from clear that these problems can or should be attributed to a new disorder. The empirical basis for a Gaming Disorder proposal, such as in the new ICD-11, suffers from fundamental issues. Our main concerns are the low quality of the research base, the fact that the current operationalization leans too heavily on substance use and gambling criteria, and the lack of consensus on symptomatology and assessment of problematic gaming. The act of formalizing this disorder, even as a proposal, has negative medical, scientific, public-health, societal, and human rights fallout that should be considered. Of particular concern are moral panics around the harm of video gaming. They might result in premature application of diagnosis in the medical community and the treatment of abundant false-positive cases, especially for children and adolescents. Second, research will be locked into a confirmatory approach, rather than an exploration of the boundaries of normal versus pathological. Third, the healthy majority of gamers will be affected negatively. We expect that the premature inclusion of Gaming Disorder as a diagnosis in ICD-11 will cause significant stigma to the millions of children who play video games as a part of a normal, healthy life. At this point, suggesting formal diagnoses and categories is premature: the ICD-11 proposal for Gaming Disorder should be removed to avoid a waste of public health resources as well as to avoid causing harm to healthy video gamers around the world.

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          A critical review of “Internet addiction” criteria with suggestions for the future

          Aims: In the last 5 years a deluge of articles on the topic of Internet addiction (IA) has proposed many candidate symptoms as evidence of this proposed disease. We critically reviewed the current approach to the measurement and identification of this new excessive behavior syndrome. Methods: Three popular models of IA were discussed: Griffith’s components model; Young’s Internet Addiction Test (IAT); and the criteria by Tao et al. (2010). We selected these models because they are widely cited and propose specific criteria for IA disorder. Our approach is not meant to provide an exhaustive review, but to discuss and critique the most salient trends in the field. Results: The models of Internet addiction share some criteria, including feeling a loss of control over Internet use; ensuing psychological, social, or professional conflict or problems; and preoccupation when not using the Internet. Other criteria inconsistently mentioned include: mood management, tolerance, withdrawal, and craving/anticipation. The models studied here share the assumption that the Internet can produce a qualitative shift to a diseased state in humans. Conclusions: We critically discussed the above criteria and concluded that the evidence base is currently not strong enough to provide support for an Internet addiction disorder. Future research areas are suggested: (1) Focusing on common impaired dimensions, (2) exploring neuroimaging as a model building tool, and (3) identifying shifts in the rewarding aspects of Internet use. Given the lack of consensus on the subject of Internet addiction, a focus on problem behaviors appears warranted.
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            Clinical validation of the C-VAT 2.0 assessment tool for gaming disorder: A sensitivity analysis of the proposed DSM-5 criteria and the clinical characteristics of young patients with 'video game addiction'.

            Clinicians struggle with the identification of video gaming problems. To address this issue, a clinical assessment tool (C-VAT 2.0) was developed and tested in a clinical setting. The instrument allows exploration of the validity of the DSM-5 proposal for 'internet gaming disorder'.
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              Mischievous responding in Internet Gaming Disorder research

              The most recent update to the American Psychiatric Association’s (APA) Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) included Internet Gaming Disorder as a new potential psychiatric condition that merited further scientific study. The present research was conducted in response to the APA Substance-Related Disorders Working Group’s research call to estimate the extent to which mischievous responding—a known problematic pattern of participant self-report responding in questionnaires—is relevant to Internet Gaming Disorder research. In line with a registered sampling and analysis plan, findings from two studies (n tot = 11,908) provide clear evidence that mischievous responding is positively associated with the number of Internet Gaming Disorder indicators participants report. Results are discussed in the context of ongoing problem gaming research and the discussion provides recommendations for improving the quality of scientific practice in this area.

                Author and article information

                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                26 September 2017
                September 2017
                : 6
                : 3
                : 267-270
                [ 1 ]Center for Computer Games Research, IT University of Copenhagen , Copenhagen, Denmark
                [ 2 ]Department of Psychology, Framingham State University , Framingham, MA, USA
                [ 3 ]UC-Leuven-Limburg, CAD Limburg , Hasselt, Belgium
                [ 4 ]Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health , Baltimore, MD, USA
                [ 5 ]Department of Psychology, Middlesex University , Hendon, London, UK
                [ 6 ] CAD Limburg , Hasselt, Belgium
                [ 7 ]Psychology Department, Université Catholique de Louvain (UCL) , Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
                [ 8 ]Department of Applied Educational Science, Umeå University , Umeå, Sweden
                [ 9 ]Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD) & Department of Sociology, Stockholm University , Stockholm, Sweden
                [ 10 ]Department of Psychology, Stetson University , DeLand, FL, USA
                [ 11 ] GGZ Momentum , Veldhoven, The Netherlands
                [ 12 ]Department of Sociology, Stockholm University , Sweden
                [ 13 ]Department of Life Sciences, University of Derby , UK
                [ 14 ]Department of Media & Communication, ERMeCC, Erasmus University Rotterdam , Rotterdam, The Netherlands
                [ 15 ]Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet , Stockholm, Sweden
                [ 16 ]Independent Researcher, USA
                [ 17 ]Department of Psychology, Villanova University , Villanova, PA, USA
                [ 18 ] Liberos , Los Angeles, USA
                [ 19 ]Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford , Oxford, UK
                [ 20 ]Department of Communication, University of Münster , Münster, Germany
                [ 21 ]Psychological Sciences and Technology, UKE, Kore University of Enna , Enna, Italy
                [ 22 ]Discipline of Psychiatry, The University of Sydney , Sydney, Australia
                [ 23 ]Clinical Psychologist/Neuropsychologist, USA
                [ 24 ]Department of Communication Sciences, imec-MICT-Ghent University , Ghent, Belgium
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding authors: Andrew K. Przybylski, PhD; Oxford Internet Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK; Phone: +44 1865 287230; E-mail: andy.przybylski@ ; Antonius J. Van Rooij, PhD; Department of Communication Sciences, imec-MICT-Ghent University, Korte Meer 7-9-11, 9000 Ghent, Belgium; Phone: +32 484 27 63 46; E-mail: tony.vanrooij@ ; Christopher J. Ferguson, PhD; Department of Psychology, Stetson University, 421 N. Woodland Blvd., DeLand, FL, USA; Phone: +1 386 822 7288; E-mail: cjfergus@ ; Daniel Kardefelt-Winther, PhD; Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Tomtebodavägen 18A, 17176 Stockholm, Sweden; Phone: +44 79 46567850; E-mail: daniel.kardefelt.winther@ ; Michelle Colder Carras, PhD; Department of Mental Health, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD, USA; Phone: +1 410 955 3910; E-mail: mcarras@
                © 2016 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 8, Pages: 4
                Funding sources: Michelle Colder Carras’ contribution to this research was supported by the National Institute of Mental Health Training Grant 5T32MH014592-39.


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