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      The transcriptome of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus Glomus intraradices (DAOM 197198) reveals functional tradeoffs in an obligate symbiont

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          Abstract

          • The arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis is arguably the most ecologically important eukaryotic symbiosis, yet it is poorly understood at the molecular level. To provide novel insights into the molecular basis of symbiosis-associated traits, we report the first genome-wide analysis of the transcriptome from Glomus intraradices DAOM 197198. • We generated a set of 25,906 nonredundant virtual transcripts (NRVTs) transcribed in germinated spores, extraradical mycelium and symbiotic roots using Sanger and 454 sequencing. NRVTs were used to construct an oligoarray for investigating gene expression. • We identified transcripts coding for the meiotic recombination machinery, as well as meiosis-specific proteins, suggesting that the lack of a known sexual cycle in G. intraradices is not a result of major deletions of genes essential for sexual reproduction and meiosis. Induced expression of genes encoding membrane transporters and small secreted proteins in intraradical mycelium, together with the lack of expression of hydrolytic enzymes acting on plant cell wall polysaccharides, are all features of G. intraradices that are shared with ectomycorrhizal symbionts and obligate biotrophic pathogens. • Our results illuminate the genetic basis of symbiosis-related traits of the most ancient lineage of plant biotrophs, advancing future research on these agriculturally and ecologically important symbionts. © 2011 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2011 New Phytologist Trust.

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          Most cited references 51

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          Plant sesquiterpenes induce hyphal branching in arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

          Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi form mutualistic, symbiotic associations with the roots of more than 80% of land plants. The fungi are incapable of completing their life cycle in the absence of a host root. Their spores can germinate and grow in the absence of a host, but their hyphal growth is very limited. Little is known about the molecular mechanisms that govern signalling and recognition between AM fungi and their host plants. In one of the first stages of host recognition, the hyphae of AM fungi show extensive branching in the vicinity of host roots before formation of the appressorium, the structure used to penetrate the plant root. Host roots are known to release signalling molecules that trigger hyphal branching, but these branching factors have not been isolated. Here we have isolated a branching factor from the root exudates of Lotus japonicus and used spectroscopic analysis and chemical synthesis to identify it as a strigolactone, 5-deoxy-strigol. Strigolactones are a group of sesquiterpene lactones, previously isolated as seed-germination stimulants for the parasitic weeds Striga and Orobanche. The natural strigolactones 5-deoxy-strigol, sorgolactone and strigol, and a synthetic analogue, GR24, induced extensive hyphal branching in germinating spores of the AM fungus Gigaspora margarita at very low concentrations.
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            Reciprocal rewards stabilize cooperation in the mycorrhizal symbiosis.

            Plants and their arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal symbionts interact in complex underground networks involving multiple partners. This increases the potential for exploitation and defection by individuals, raising the question of how partners maintain a fair, two-way transfer of resources. We manipulated cooperation in plants and fungal partners to show that plants can detect, discriminate, and reward the best fungal partners with more carbohydrates. In turn, their fungal partners enforce cooperation by increasing nutrient transfer only to those roots providing more carbohydrates. On the basis of these observations we conclude that, unlike many other mutualisms, the symbiont cannot be "enslaved." Rather, the mutualism is evolutionarily stable because control is bidirectional, and partners offering the best rate of exchange are rewarded.
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              A new fungal phylum, the Glomeromycota: phylogeny and evolution

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New Phytologist
                Wiley
                0028646X
                February 2012
                February 2012
                November 16 2011
                : 193
                : 3
                : 755-769
                Article
                10.1111/j.1469-8137.2011.03948.x
                22092242
                © 2011

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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