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      Strategies for prevention of postoperative delirium: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials

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          Abstract

          Introduction

          The ideal measures to prevent postoperative delirium remain unestablished. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to clarify the significance of potential interventions.

          Methods

          The PRISMA statement guidelines were followed. Two researchers searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library for articles published in English before August 2012. Additional sources included reference lists from reviews and related articles from 'Google Scholar'. Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on interventions seeking to prevent postoperative delirium in adult patients were included. Data extraction and methodological quality assessment were performed using predefined data fields and scoring system. Meta-analysis was accomplished for studies that used similar strategies. The primary outcome measure was the incidence of postoperative delirium. We further tested whether interventions effective in preventing postoperative delirium shortened the length of hospital stay.

          Results

          We identified 38 RCTs with interventions ranging from perioperative managements to pharmacological, psychological or multicomponent interventions. Meta-analysis showed dexmedetomidine sedation was associated with less delirium compared to sedation produced by other drugs (two RCTs with 415 patients, pooled risk ratio (RR) = 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.16 to 0.95). Both typical (three RCTs with 965 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.54 to 0.93) and atypical antipsychotics (three RCTs with 627 patients, RR = 0.36; 95% CI = 0.26 to 0.50) decreased delirium occurrence when compared to placebos. Multicomponent interventions (two RCTs with 325 patients, RR = 0.71; 95% CI = 0.58 to 0.86) were effective in preventing delirium. No difference in the incidences of delirium was found between: neuraxial and general anesthesia (four RCTs with 511 patients, RR = 0.99; 95% CI = 0.65 to 1.50); epidural and intravenous analgesia (three RCTs with 167 patients, RR = 0.93; 95% CI = 0.61 to 1.43) or acetylcholinesterase inhibitors and placebo (four RCTs with 242 patients, RR = 0.95; 95% CI = 0.63 to 1.44). Effective prevention of postoperative delirium did not shorten the length of hospital stay (10 RCTs with 1,636 patients, pooled SMD (standard mean difference) = -0.06; 95% CI = -0.16 to 0.04).

          Conclusions

          The included studies showed great inconsistencies in definition, incidence, severity and duration of postoperative delirium. Meta-analysis supported dexmedetomidine sedation, multicomponent interventions and antipsychotics were useful in preventing postoperative delirium.

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          Most cited references 75

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          One-year health care costs associated with delirium in the elderly population.

          While delirium has been increasingly recognized as a serious and potentially preventable condition, its long-term implications are not well understood. This study determined the total 1-year health care costs associated with delirium. Hospitalized patients aged 70 years and older who participated in a previous controlled clinical trial of a delirium prevention intervention at an academic medical center between 1995 and 1998 were followed up for 1 year after discharge. Total inflation-adjusted health care costs, calculated as either reimbursed amounts or hospital charges converted to costs, were computed by means of data from Medicare administrative files, hospital billing records, and the Connecticut Long-term Care Registry. Regression models were used to determine costs associated with delirium after adjusting for patient sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. During the index hospitalization, 109 patients (13.0%) developed delirium while 732 did not. Patients with delirium had significantly higher unadjusted health care costs and survived fewer days. After adjusting for pertinent demographic and clinical characteristics, average costs per day survived among patients with delirium were more than 2(1/2) times the costs among patients without delirium. Total cost estimates attributable to delirium ranged from $16 303 to $64 421 per patient, implying that the national burden of delirium on the health care system ranges from $38 billion to $152 billion each year. The economic impact of delirium is substantial, rivaling the health care costs of falls and diabetes mellitus. These results highlight the need for increased efforts to mitigate this clinically significant and costly disorder.
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            Delirium in elderly adults: diagnosis, prevention and treatment.

            Delirium is a common and serious acute neuropsychiatric syndrome with core features of inattention and global cognitive dysfunction. The etiologies of delirium are diverse and multifactorial and often reflect the pathophysiological consequences of an acute medical illness, medical complication or drug intoxication. Delirium can have a widely variable presentation, and is often missed and underdiagnosed as a result. At present, the diagnosis of delirium is clinically based and depends on the presence or absence of certain features. Management strategies for delirium are focused on prevention and symptom management. This article reviews current clinical practice in delirium in elderly individuals, including the diagnosis, treatment, outcomes and economic impact of this syndrome. Areas of future research are also discussed.
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              Precipitating factors for delirium in hospitalized elderly persons. Predictive model and interrelationship with baseline vulnerability.

              To prospectively develop and validate a predictive model for delirium based on precipitating factors during hospitalization, and to examine the interrelationship of precipitating factors and baseline vulnerability. Two prospective cohort studies, in tandem. General medical wards, university teaching hospital. For the development cohort, 196 patients aged 70 years and older with no delirium at baseline, and for the validation cohort, 312 comparable patients. New-onset delirium by hospital day 9, defined by the Confusion Assessment Method diagnostic criteria. Delirium developed in 35 patients (18%) in the development cohort. Five independent precipitating factors for delirium were identified; use of physical restraints (adjusted relative risk [RR], 4.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.5 to 7.9), malnutrition (RR, 4.0; 95% CI, 2.2 to 7.4), more than three medications added (RR, 2.9; 95% CI, 1.6 to 5.4), use of bladder catheter (RR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.2 to 4.7), and any iatrogenic event (RR, 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1 to 3.2). Each precipitating factor preceded the onset of delirium by more than 24 hours. A risk stratification system was developed by adding 1 point for each factor present. Rates of delirium for low-risk (0 points), intermediate-risk (1 to 2 points), and high-risk groups (> or equal to 3 points) were 3%, 20%, and 59%, respectively (P < .001). The corresponding rates in the validation cohort, in which 47 patients (15%) developed delirium, were 4%, 20%, and 35%, respectively (P < .001). When precipitating and baseline factors were analyzed in cross-stratified format, delirium rates increased progressively from low-risk to high-risk groups in all directions (double-gradient phenomenon). The contributions of baseline and precipitating factors were documented to be independent and statistically significant. A simple predictive model based on the presence of five precipitating factors can be used to identify elderly medical patients at high risk for delirium. Precipitating and baseline vulnerability factors are highly interrelated and contribute to delirium in independent substantive, and cumulative ways.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Crit Care
                Crit Care
                Critical Care
                BioMed Central
                1364-8535
                1466-609X
                2013
                18 March 2013
                : 17
                : 2
                : R47
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology and Neuroscience Research Center, Changzheng Hospital, Second Military Medical University, 415 Fengyang Road, Shanghai 200003, China
                [2 ]Institute of Neuroscience and MOE Key Laboratory of Molecular Neurobiology, Second Military Medical University, 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai 200433, China
                [3 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Eastern Hepatobiliary Hospital, 225 Changhai Road, Shanghai 200438, China
                Article
                cc12566
                10.1186/cc12566
                3672487
                23506796
                d72ea6b1-7317-4ba7-8d03-174d93c714c5
                Copyright ©2013 Zhang et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Research

                Emergency medicine & Trauma

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