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      A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea: A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

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          Abstract

          Background

          Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist.

          Objective

          Our objective was to compile a list of medications affecting salivary gland function and inducing xerostomia or subjective sialorrhea.

          Data Sources

          Electronic databases were searched for relevant articles published until June 2013. Of 3867 screened records, 269 had an acceptable degree of relevance, quality of methodology, and strength of evidence. We found 56 chemical substances with a higher level of evidence and 50 with a moderate level of evidence of causing the above-mentioned disorders. At the first level of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification system, 9 of 14 anatomical groups were represented, mainly the alimentary, cardiovascular, genitourinary, nervous, and respiratory systems. Management strategies include substitution or discontinuation of medications whenever possible, oral or systemic therapy with sialogogues, administration of saliva substitutes, and use of electro-stimulating devices.

          Limitations

          While xerostomia was a commonly reported outcome, objectively measured salivary flow rate was rarely reported. Moreover, xerostomia was mostly assessed as an adverse effect rather than the primary outcome of medication use. This study may not include some medications that could cause xerostomia when administered in conjunction with others or for which xerostomia as an adverse reaction has not been reported in the literature or was not detected in our search.

          Conclusions

          We compiled a comprehensive list of medications with documented effects on salivary gland function or symptoms that may assist practitioners in assessing patients who complain of dry mouth while taking medications. The list may also prove useful in helping practitioners anticipate adverse effects and consider alternative medications.

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          Most cited references 242

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          Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement.

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            Effects of low-dose, controlled-release, phentermine plus topiramate combination on weight and associated comorbidities in overweight and obese adults (CONQUER): a randomised, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

            Obesity is associated with a reduction in life expectancy and an increase in mortality from cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and other causes. We therefore assessed the efficacy and safety of two doses of phentermine plus topiramate controlled-release combination as an adjunct to diet and lifestyle modification for weight loss and metabolic risk reduction in individuals who were overweight and obese, with two or more risk factors. In this 56-week phase 3 trial, we randomly assigned overweight or obese adults (aged 18-70 years), with a body-mass index of 27-45 kg/m(2) and two or more comorbidities (hypertension, dyslipidaemia, diabetes or prediabetes, or abdominal obesity) to placebo, once-daily phentermine 7·5 mg plus topiramate 46·0 mg, or once-daily phentermine 15·0 mg plus topiramate 92·0 mg in a 2:1:2 ratio in 93 centres in the USA. Drugs were administered orally. Patients were randomly assigned by use of a computer-generated algorithm that was implemented through an interactive voice response system, and were stratified by sex and diabetic status. Investigators, patients, and study sponsors were masked to treatment. Primary endpoints were the percentage change in bodyweight and the proportion of patients achieving at least 5% weight loss. Analysis was by intention to treat. This study is registered with Clinical Trials.gov, number NCT00553787. Of 2487 patients, 994 were assigned to placebo, 498 to phentermine 7·5 mg plus topiramate 46·0 mg, and 995 to phentermine 15·0 mg plus topiramate 92·0 mg; 979, 488, and 981 patients, respectively, were analysed. At 56 weeks, change in bodyweight was -1·4 kg (least-squares mean -1·2%, 95% CI -1·8 to -0·7), -8·1 kg (-7·8%, -8·5 to -7·1; p<0·0001), and -10·2 kg (-9·8%, -10·4 to -9·3; p<0·0001) in the patients assigned to placebo, phentermine 7·5 mg plus topiramate 46·0 mg, and phentermine 15·0 mg plus topiramate 92·0 mg, respectively. 204 (21%) patients achieved at least 5% weight loss with placebo, 303 (62%; odds ratio 6·3, 95% CI 4·9 to 8·0; p<0·0001) with phentermine 7·5 mg plus topiramate 46·0 mg, and 687 (70%; 9·0, 7·3 to 11·1; p<0·0001) with phentermine 15·0 mg plus topiramate 92·0 mg; for ≥10% weight loss, the corresponding numbers were 72 (7%), 182 (37%; 7·6, 5·6 to 10·2; p<0·0001), and 467 (48%; 11·7, 8·9 to 15·4; p<0·0001). The most common adverse events were dry mouth (24 [2%], 67 [13%], and 207 [21%] in the groups assigned to placebo, phentermine 7·5 mg plus topiramate 46·0 mg, and phentermine 15·0 mg plus topiramate 92·0 mg, respectively), paraesthesia (20 [2%], 68 [14%], and 204 [21%], respectively), constipation (59 [6%], 75 [15%], and 173 [17%], respectively), insomnia (47 [5%], 29 [6%], and 102 [10%], respectively), dizziness (31 [3%], 36 [7%], 99 [10%], respectively), and dysgeusia (11 [1%], 37 [7%], and 103 [10%], respectively). 38 (4%) patients assigned to placebo, 19 (4%) to phentermine 7·5 mg plus topiramate 46·0 mg, and 73 (7%) to phentermine 15·0 mg plus topiramate 92·0 mg had depression-related adverse events; and 28 (3%), 24 (5%), and 77 (8%), respectively, had anxiety-related adverse events. The combination of phentermine and topiramate, with office-based lifestyle interventions, might be a valuable treatment for obesity that can be provided by family doctors. Vivus. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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              Effect of naltrexone plus bupropion on weight loss in overweight and obese adults (COR-I): a multicentre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial.

              Despite increasing public health concerns regarding obesity, few safe and effective drug treatments are available. Combination treatment with sustained-release naltrexone and bupropion was developed to produce complementary actions in CNS pathways regulating bodyweight. The Contrave Obesity Research I (COR-I) study assessed the effect of such treatment on bodyweight in overweight and obese participants. Men and women aged 18-65 years who had a body-mass index (BMI) of 30-45 kg/m(2) and uncomplicated obesity or BMI 27-45 kg/m(2) with dyslipidaemia or hypertension were eligible for enrolment in this randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial undertaken at 34 sites in the USA. Participants were prescribed mild hypocaloric diet and exercise and were randomly assigned in a 1:1:1 ratio to receive sustained-release naltrexone 32 mg per day plus sustained-release bupropion 360 mg per day combined in fixed-dose tablets (also known as NB32), sustained-release naltrexone 16 mg per day plus sustained-release bupropion 360 mg per day combined in fixed-dose tablets (also known as NB16), or matching placebo twice a day, given orally for 56 weeks. The trial included a 3-week dose escalation. Randomisation was done by use of a centralised, computer-generated, web-based system and was stratified by study centre. Co-primary efficacy endpoints at 56 weeks were percentage change in bodyweight and proportion of participants who achieved a decrease in bodyweight of 5% or more. The primary analysis included all randomised participants with a baseline weight measurement and a post-baseline weight measurement while on study drug (last observation carried forward). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00532779. 1742 participants were enrolled and randomised to double-blind treatment (naltrexone 32 mg plus bupropion, n=583; naltrexone 16 mg plus bupropion, n=578; placebo, n=581). 870 (50%) participants completed 56 weeks of treatment (n=296; n=284; n=290, respectively) and 1453 (83%) were included in the primary analysis (n=471; n=471; n=511). Mean change in bodyweight was -1.3% (SE 0.3) in the placebo group, -6.1% (0.3) in the naltrexone 32 mg plus bupropion group (p<0.0001 vs placebo) and -5.0% (0.3) in the naltrexone 16 mg plus bupropion group (p<0.0001 vs placebo). 84 (16%) participants assigned to placebo had a decrease in bodyweight of 5% or more compared with 226 (48%) assigned to naltrexone 32 mg plus bupropion (p<0.0001 vs placebo) and 186 (39%) assigned to naltrexone 16 mg plus bupropion (p<0.0001 vs placebo). The most frequent adverse event in participants assigned to combination treatment was nausea (naltrexone 32 mg plus bupropion, 171 participants [29.8%]; naltrexone 16 mg plus bupropion, 155 [27.2%]; placebo, 30 [5.3%]). Headache, constipation, dizziness, vomiting, and dry mouth were also more frequent in the naltrexone plus bupropion groups than in the placebo group. A transient increase of around 1.5 mm Hg in mean systolic and diastolic blood pressure was followed by a reduction of around 1 mm Hg below baseline in the naltrexone plus bupropion groups. Combination treatment was not associated with increased depression or suicidality events compared with placebo. A sustained-release combination of naltrexone plus bupropion could be a useful therapeutic option for treatment of obesity. Orexigen Therapeutics. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +972-50-880-1852 , awolff@zahav.net.il
                Journal
                Drugs R D
                Drugs R D
                Drugs in R&D
                Springer International Publishing (Cham )
                1174-5886
                1179-6901
                16 November 2016
                16 November 2016
                March 2017
                : 17
                : 1
                : 1-28
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0518 6922, GRID grid.413449.f, , Tel-Aviv Sourasky Medical Center, ; Tel Aviv, Israel
                [2 ]Saliwell Ltd, 65 Hatamar St, 60917 Harutzim, Israel
                [3 ]Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, DAPMRV Dental College, Bangalore, India
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9919 9582, GRID grid.8761.8, Department of Pharmacology, , Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at the University of Gothenburg, ; Göteborg, Sweden
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0538, GRID grid.9619.7, , The Hebrew University, ; Jerusalem, Israel
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0674 042X, GRID grid.5254.6, Department of Odontology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, , University of Copenhagen, ; Copenhagen, Denmark
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2322 6764, GRID grid.13097.3c, Mucosal and Salivary Biology Division, , Dental Institute, King’s College London, ; London, UK
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0060, GRID grid.24434.35, Department of Oral Biology, , University of Nebraska Medical Center (UNMC) College of Dentistry, ; Lincoln, NE USA
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0378 8294, GRID grid.62560.37, Division of Oral Medicine and Dentistry, Department of Oral Medicine Infection and Immunity, , Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard School of Dental Medicine, ; Boston, MA USA
                [10 ]McGill University, Faculty of Dentistry, Montreal, QC Canada
                [11 ]GRID grid.449915.4, Faculty of Dental Medicine, , University of Medicine, ; Tirana, Albania
                [12 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 7443, GRID grid.7914.b, Broegelmann Research Laboratory, Department of Clinical Science, , University of Bergen, ; Bergen, Norway
                [13 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8753, GRID grid.137628.9, , New York University, ; New York, NY USA
                [14 ]ISNI 0000 0001 1956 2722, GRID grid.7048.b, Department of Dentistry and Oral Health, , Aarhus University, ; Aarhus, Denmark
                [15 ]Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands
                [16 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 9609, GRID grid.21613.37, Department of Oral Biology, , University of Manitoba, ; Winnipeg, MB Canada
                Article
                153
                10.1007/s40268-016-0153-9
                5318321
                27853957
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits any noncommercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made.

                Categories
                Systematic Review
                Custom metadata
                © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2017

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