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      Hereditary Paraganglioma/Pheochromocytoma and Inherited Succinate Dehydrogenase Deficiency

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          Abstract

          Mitochondrial complex II, or succinate dehydrogenase, is a key enzymatic complex involved in both the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and oxidative phosphorylation as part of the mitochondrial respiratory chain. Germline succinate dehydrogenase subunit A ( SDHA) mutations have been reported in a few patients with a classical mitochondrial neurodegenerative disease. Mutations in the genes encoding the three other succinate dehydrogenase subunits ( SDHB, SDHC and SDHD) have been identified in patients affected by familial or ‘apparently sporadic’ paraganglioma and/or pheochromocytoma, an autosomal inherited cancer-susceptibility syndrome. These discoveries have dramatically changed the work-up and genetic counseling of patients and families with paragangliomas and/or pheochromocytomas. The subsequent identification of germline mutations in the gene encoding fumarase – another TCA cycle enzyme – in a new hereditary form of susceptibility to renal, uterine and cutaneous tumors has highlighted the potential role of the TCA cycle and, more generally, of the mitochondria in cancer.

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          Most cited references 34

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          Mutations in SDHD, a mitochondrial complex II gene, in hereditary paraganglioma.

          Hereditary paraganglioma (PGL) is characterized by the development of benign, vascularized tumors in the head and neck. The most common tumor site is the carotid body (CB), a chemoreceptive organ that senses oxygen levels in the blood. Analysis of families carrying the PGL1 gene, described here, revealed germ line mutations in the SDHD gene on chromosome 11q23. SDHD encodes a mitochondrial respiratory chain protein-the small subunit of cytochrome b in succinate-ubiquinone oxidoreductase (cybS). In contrast to expectations based on the inheritance pattern of PGL, the SDHD gene showed no evidence of imprinting. These findings indicate that mitochondria play an important role in the pathogenesis of certain tumors and that cybS plays a role in normal CB physiology.
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            von Hippel-Lindau disease.

            von Hippel-Lindau disease is a heritable multisystem cancer syndrome that is associated with a germline mutation of the VHL tumour suppressor gene on the short arm of chromosome 3. This disorder is not rare (about one in 36000 livebirths) and is inherited as a highly penetrant autosomal dominant trait (ie, with a high individual risk of disease). Affected individuals are at risk of developing various benign and malignant tumours of the central nervous system, kidneys, adrenal glands, pancreas, and reproductive adnexal organs. Because of the complexities associated with management of the various types of tumours in this disease, treatment is multidisciplinary. We present an overview of the clinical aspects, management, and treatment options for von Hippel-Lindau disease.
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              Germ-line mutations in nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma.

              The group of susceptibility genes for pheochromocytoma that included the proto-oncogene RET (associated with multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2 [MEN-2]) and the tumor-suppressor gene VHL (associated with von Hippel-Lindau disease) now also encompasses the newly identified genes for succinate dehydrogenase subunit D (SDHD) and succinate dehydrogenase subunit B (SDHB), which predispose carriers to pheochromocytomas and glomus tumors. We used molecular tools to classify a large cohort of patients with pheochromocytoma with respect to the presence or absence of mutations of one of these four genes and to investigate the relevance of genetic analyses to clinical practice. Peripheral blood from unrelated, consenting registry patients with pheochromocytoma was tested for mutations of RET, VHL, SDHD, and SDHB. Clinical data at first presentation and follow-up were evaluated. Among 271 patients who presented with nonsyndromic pheochromocytoma and without a family history of the disease, 66 (24 percent) were found to have mutations (mean age, 25 years; 32 men and 34 women). Of these 66, 30 had mutations of VHL, 13 of RET, 11 of SDHD, and 12 of SDHB. Younger age, multifocal tumors, and extraadrenal tumors were significantly associated with the presence of a mutation. However, among the 66 patients who were positive for mutations, only 21 had multifocal pheochromocytoma. Twenty-three (35 percent) presented after the age of 30 years, and 17 (8 percent) after the age of 40. Sixty-one (92 percent) of the patients with mutations were identified solely by molecular testing of VHL, RET, SDHD, and SDHB; these patients had no associated signs and symptoms at presentation. Almost one fourth of patients with apparently sporadic pheochromocytoma may be carriers of mutations; routine analysis for mutations of RET, VHL, SDHD, and SDHB is indicated to identify pheochromocytoma-associated syndromes that would otherwise be missed.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                HRE
                Horm Res Paediatr
                10.1159/issn.1663-2818
                Hormone Research in Paediatrics
                S. Karger AG
                1663-2818
                1663-2826
                2005
                June 2005
                13 June 2005
                : 63
                : 4
                : 171-179
                Affiliations
                aDépartement de Génétique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, Université Paris V and INSERM U36, Collège de France, and bINSERM U676, Hôpital Robert Debré, Paris, France
                Article
                84685 Horm Res 2005;63:171–179
                10.1159/000084685
                15795514
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 2, References: 46, Pages: 9
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