10
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
1 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found

      Ccl2/Cx3cr1-Deficient Mice: An Animal Model for Age-Related Macular Degeneration

      Read this article at

      ScienceOpenPublisherPMC
      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Background/Aims: Senescent Ccl2<sup>–/–</sup> mice develop cardinal features of human age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Loss-of-function single-nucleotide polymorphisms within CX3CR1 are associated with AMD. Methods: We generated Ccl2<sup>–/–</sup> /Cx3cr1<sup>–/–</sup> [double-knockout (DKO)] mice and evaluated the eyes using fundoscopy routine histology, immunochemistry, biochemistry and proteomics. Results: At 6 weeks old, all DKO mice developed AMD-like retinal lesions such as abnormal retinal pigment epithelium cells, drusen, photoreceptor atrophy and choroidal neovascularization, which progressed with age and reversed with high omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid diet. N-retinylidene-N-retinylethanolamine (A2E), a major lipofuscin fluorophore, illustrated by an emission peak at ∼600 nm, was significantly higher in DKO retinal pigment epithelium. Decreased ERp29 was found in the retina of DKO mice. Conclusion: A broad spectrum of AMD pathologies with early onset and high penetrance in these mice implicate certain chemokines, A2E and endoplasmic reticulum proteins in AMD pathogenesis.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 11

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          CX3CR1-dependent subretinal microglia cell accumulation is associated with cardinal features of age-related macular degeneration.

          The role of retinal microglial cells (MCs) in age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is unclear. Here we demonstrated that all retinal MCs express CX3C chemokine receptor 1 (CX3CR1) and that homozygosity for the CX3CR1 M280 allele, which is associated with impaired cell migration, increases the risk of AMD. In humans with AMD, MCs accumulated in the subretinal space at sites of retinal degeneration and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In CX3CR1-deficient mice, MCs accumulated subretinally with age and albino background and after laser impact preceding retinal degeneration. Raising the albino mice in the dark prevented both events. The appearance of lipid-bloated subretinal MCs was drusen-like on funduscopy of senescent mice, and CX3CR1-dependent MC accumulation was associated with an exacerbation of experimental CNV. These results show that CX3CR1-dependent accumulation of subretinal MCs evokes cardinal features of AMD. These findings reveal what we believe to be a novel pathogenic process with important implications for the development of new therapies for AMD.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Association between use of lung-protective ventilation with lower tidal volumes and clinical outcomes among patients without acute respiratory distress syndrome: a meta-analysis.

            Lung-protective mechanical ventilation with the use of lower tidal volumes has been found to improve outcomes of patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). It has been suggested that use of lower tidal volumes also benefits patients who do not have ARDS. To determine whether use of lower tidal volumes is associated with improved outcomes of patients receiving ventilation who do not have ARDS. MEDLINE, CINAHL, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials up to August 2012. Eligible studies evaluated use of lower vs higher tidal volumes in patients without ARDS at onset of mechanical ventilation and reported lung injury development, overall mortality, pulmonary infection, atelectasis, and biochemical alterations. Three reviewers extracted data on study characteristics, methods, and outcomes. Disagreement was resolved by consensus. Twenty articles (2822 participants) were included. Meta-analysis using a fixed-effects model showed a decrease in lung injury development (risk ratio [RR], 0.33; 95% CI, 0.23 to 0.47; I2, 0%; number needed to treat [NNT], 11), and mortality (RR, 0.64; 95% CI, 0.46 to 0.89; I2, 0%; NNT, 23) in patients receiving ventilation with lower tidal volumes. The results of lung injury development were similar when stratified by the type of study (randomized vs nonrandomized) and were significant only in randomized trials for pulmonary infection and only in nonrandomized trials for mortality. Meta-analysis using a random-effects model showed, in protective ventilation groups, a lower incidence of pulmonary infection (RR, 0.45; 95% CI, 0.22 to 0.92; I2, 32%; NNT, 26), lower mean (SD) hospital length of stay (6.91 [2.36] vs 8.87 [2.93] days, respectively; standardized mean difference [SMD], 0.51; 95% CI, 0.20 to 0.82; I2, 75%), higher mean (SD) PaCO2 levels (41.05 [3.79] vs 37.90 [4.19] mm Hg, respectively; SMD, -0.51; 95% CI, -0.70 to -0.32; I2, 54%), and lower mean (SD) pH values (7.37 [0.03] vs 7.40 [0.04], respectively; SMD, 1.16; 95% CI, 0.31 to 2.02; I2, 96%) but similar mean (SD) ratios of PaO2 to fraction of inspired oxygen (304.40 [65.7] vs 312.97 [68.13], respectively; SMD, 0.11; 95% CI, -0.06 to 0.27; I2, 60%). Tidal volume gradients between the 2 groups did not influence significantly the final results. Among patients without ARDS, protective ventilation with lower tidal volumes was associated with better clinical outcomes. Some of the limitations of the meta-analysis were the mixed setting of mechanical ventilation (intensive care unit or operating room) and the duration of mechanical ventilation.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              An animal model of age-related macular degeneration in senescent Ccl-2- or Ccr-2-deficient mice.

              The study and treatment of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness, has been hampered by a lack of animal models. Here we report that mice deficient either in monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (Ccl-2; also known as MCP-1) or its cognate C-C chemokine receptor-2 (Ccr-2) develop cardinal features of AMD, including accumulation of lipofuscin in and drusen beneath the retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE), photoreceptor atrophy and choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Complement and IgG deposition in RPE and choroid accompanies senescence in this model, as in human AMD. RPE or choroidal endothelial production of Ccl-2 induced by complement C5a and IgG may mediate choroidal macrophage infiltration into aged wild-type choroids. Wild-type choroidal macrophages degrade C5 and IgG in eye sections of Ccl2(-/-) or Ccr2(-/-) mice. Impaired macrophage recruitment may allow accumulation of C5a and IgG, which induces vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) production by RPE, possibly mediating development of CNV. These models implicate macrophage dysfunction in AMD pathogenesis and may be useful as a platform for validating therapies.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                978-3-8055-8584-2
                978-3-8055-8585-9
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2008
                April 2008
                18 April 2008
                : 40
                : 3-4
                : 124-128
                Affiliations
                aSection of Immunopathology, Laboratory of Immunology, National Eye Institute, bSection on Medical Biophysics, Laboratory of Integrative and Medical Biophysics, National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, and cLaboratory of Membrane Biochemistry and Biophysics, National Institute of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, Md., USA
                Article
                119862 PMC2409067 Ophthalmic Res 2008;40:124–128
                10.1159/000119862
                PMC2409067
                18421225
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 24, Pages: 5
                Categories
                Paper

                Comments

                Comment on this article