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      Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase Gene Polymorphism, Hyperhomocysteinemia, and Cardiovascular Diseases in Chronic Hemodialysis Patients

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          Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principle cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Some gene polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype, endothelial nitric oxide synthase genotype, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and CVD in patients on hemodialysis and to clarify the determinants of plasma homocysteine level. One hundred and sixty-eight patients on hemodialysis (87 males and 81 females, mean age 60.7 ± 13.1 years) were included. A history of CVD was present in 25% of the patients. There was a significant difference in the distributions of MTHFR non-VV genotype and MTHFR VV genotype between patients with a CVD history and patients without a CVD history, but no difference in the distributions of angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genotypes. The plasma homocysteine concentration was significantly higher in patients with MTHFR VV genotype than in patients with MTHFR non-VV genotype. The plasma homocysteine concentration was negatively correlated with plasma vitamin B<sub>12</sub> concentration and plasma folate concentration. On stepwise multiple-regression analysis for the predictors of plasma homocysteine concentration, MTHFR VV genotype and gender were significant. In conclusion, MTHFR polymorphism may be a risk factor for CVD in patients on hemodialysis, and MTHFR VV genotype and gender may be strong determinants of the plasma homocysteine level.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Plasma homocysteine levels and mortality in patients with coronary artery disease.

          Elevated plasma homocysteine levels are a risk factor for coronary heart disease, but the prognostic value of homocysteine levels in patients with established coronary artery disease has not been defined. We prospectively investigated the relation between plasma total homocysteine levels and mortality among 587 patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease. At the time of angiography in 1991 or 1992, risk factors for coronary disease, including homocysteine levels, were evaluated. The majority of the patients subsequently underwent coronary-artery bypass grafting (318 patients) or percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (120 patients); the remaining 149 were treated medically. After a median follow-up of 4.6 years, 64 patients (10.9 percent) had died. We found a strong, graded relation between plasma homocysteine levels and overall mortality. After four years, 3.8 percent of patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter had died, as compared with 24.7 percent of those with homocysteine levels of 15 micromol per liter or higher. Homocysteine levels were only weakly related to the extent of coronary artery disease but were strongly related to the history with respect to myocardial infarction, the left ventricular ejection fraction, and the serum creatinine level. The relation of homocysteine levels to mortality remained strong after adjustment for these and other potential confounders. In an analysis in which the patients with homocysteine levels below 9 micromol per liter were used as the reference group, the mortality ratios were 1.9 for patients with homocysteine levels of 9.0 to 14.9 micromol per liter, 2.8 for those with levels of 15.0 to 19.9 micromol per liter, and 4.5 for those with levels of 20.0 micromol per liter or higher (P for trend=0.02). When death due to cardiovascular disease (which occurred in 50 patients) was used as the end point in the analysis, the relation between homocysteine levels and mortality was slightly strengthened. Plasma total homocysteine levels are a strong predictor of mortality in patients with angiographically confirmed coronary artery disease.
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            The deletion/insertion polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme gene and cardiovascular-renal risk.

            This meta-analysis attempted to derive pooled estimates for the associations between various cardiovascular-renal disorders and the deletion/insertion (D/I) polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) gene. Case-control studies were combined, using the Mantel-Haenszel approach. Joint P values for continuous variables were calculated by Stouffer's method. Continuous measurements reported in different units were expressed on a percentage scale using the within-study mean of the II genotype as the denominator. The computerized database used for this analysis included 145 reports with an overall sample size of 49 959 subjects. Overall, possession of the D allele was associated with an increased risk of atherosclerotic and renal microvascular complications. In comparison with the II reference group, the excess risk in DD homozygotes (P < 0.001) was 32% for coronary heart disease (CHD; 30 studies), 45% for myocardial infarction (20 studies), 94% for stroke (five studies) and 56% for diabetic nephropathy (11 studies). The corresponding risk in DI heterozygotes amounted to 11% (P= 0.02), 13% (P= 0.02), 22% (P= 0.10) and 40% (P < 0.001), respectively. Hypertension (23 studies), left ventricular hypertrophy (five studies), hypertrophic or dilated cardiomyopathy (eight studies) and diabetic retinopathy (two studies) were not related to the DI polymorphism. Publication bias was observed for CHD, myocardial infarction and microvascular nephropathy, but not hypertension. In studies with DNA amplification in the presence of insertion-specific primers, the risk associated with the DD genotype increased to 150% [95% confidence interval (CI) 76-256; four studies] for diabetic nephropathy, but decreased to 12% (95% CI -3 to 28; seven studies) for CHD and 14% (95% CI -6 to 37; four studies) for myocardial infarction. On the other hand, the pooled odds ratios did not materially change if the meta-analysis was limited to articles published in journals with an impact factor of at least 4. Furthermore, compared with the II control group, the circulating ACE levels (29 studies) were raised 58 and 31% (P < 0.001) in DD and DI subjects, respectively. In contrast, plasma renin (10 studies), systolic and diastolic blood pressure (46 studies) and body mass index (30 studies) were not associated with the D allele. The D allele is not associated with hypertension, but behaves as a marker of atherosclerotic cardiovascular complications and diabetic nephropathy. These associations do not necessarily imply a causal relationship and may have been inflated by publication bias. Nevertheless, their possible therapeutic implications may be subject to further investigation in prospective (intervention) studies.
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              Prevalence and determinants of hyperhomocysteinemia in hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis


                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                13 December 2001
                : 90
                : 1
                : 43-50
                aFirst Department of Internal Medicine, Asahikawa Medical College, Asahikawa, bNemuro City Hospital, Nemuro, and cIshida Hospital, Asahikawa, Japan
                46313 Nephron 2002;90:43–50
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 5, References: 32, Pages: 8
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