Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the principle cause of death in patients with end-stage renal disease. Some gene polymorphisms and hyperhomocysteinemia have been implicated in the pathogenesis of CVD. The aim of this study was to assess the relationships between angiotensin-converting enzyme genotype, endothelial nitric oxide synthase genotype, and methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) genotype and CVD in patients on hemodialysis and to clarify the determinants of plasma homocysteine level. One hundred and sixty-eight patients on hemodialysis (87 males and 81 females, mean age 60.7 ± 13.1 years) were included. A history of CVD was present in 25% of the patients. There was a significant difference in the distributions of MTHFR non-VV genotype and MTHFR VV genotype between patients with a CVD history and patients without a CVD history, but no difference in the distributions of angiotensin-converting enzyme genotypes and endothelial nitric oxide synthase genotypes. The plasma homocysteine concentration was significantly higher in patients with MTHFR VV genotype than in patients with MTHFR non-VV genotype. The plasma homocysteine concentration was negatively correlated with plasma vitamin B<sub>12</sub> concentration and plasma folate concentration. On stepwise multiple-regression analysis for the predictors of plasma homocysteine concentration, MTHFR VV genotype and gender were significant. In conclusion, MTHFR polymorphism may be a risk factor for CVD in patients on hemodialysis, and MTHFR VV genotype and gender may be strong determinants of the plasma homocysteine level.