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      Hydrogels based on cellulose and chitin: fabrication, properties, and applications

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          Abstract

          A review of the synthesis and applications of renewable, biocompatible, and biodegradable hydrogels made from cellulose, chitin, and some of their derivatives indicates increased attention due to their excellent processability, high absorbency, porosity, bioactivity, and abundant active groups.

          This review is focused on the fabrication, properties, and applications of hydrogels prepared from two of the most abundant biopolymers on earth, cellulose and chitin. The review emphasizes the latest developments in hydrogel preparation (including solvent systems, cross-linker types, and preparation methods, which determine the “greenness” of the process) using these biocompatible and biodegradable biopolymers. The preparation of both physical (without covalent cross-links) and chemical (with covalent cross-links) hydrogels via dissolution/gelation is discussed. Additionally, formation of injectable thermoset and/or pH sensitive hydrogels from aqueous solutions of derivatives (chitosan, methyl cellulose, and hydroxypropylmethyl cellulose) with or without a cross-linker are discussed. This review also compares the design parameters for different applications of various pure and composite hydrogels based on cellulose, chitin, or chitosan, including applications as controlled and targeted drug delivery systems, improved tissue engineering scaffolds, wound dressings, water purification sorbents, and others.

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          Most cited references281

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          Hydrogels for tissue engineering.

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            Hydrogels in pharmaceutical formulations.

            N. Peppas (2000)
            The availability of large molecular weight protein- and peptide-based drugs due to the recent advances in the field of molecular biology has given us new ways to treat a number of diseases. Synthetic hydrogels offer a possibly effective and convenient way to administer these compounds. Hydrogels are hydrophilic, three-dimensional networks, which are able to imbibe large amounts of water or biological fluids, and thus resemble, to a large extent, a biological tissue. They are insoluble due to the presence of chemical (tie-points, junctions) and/or physical crosslinks such as entanglements and crystallites. These materials can be synthesized to respond to a number of physiological stimuli present in the body, such as pH, ionic strength and temperature. The aim of this article is to present a concise review on the applications of hydrogels in the pharmaceutical field, hydrogel characterization and analysis of drug release from such devices.
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              Novel solvent properties of choline chloride/urea mixturesElectronic supplementary information (ESI) available: spectroscopic data. See http://www.rsc.org/suppdata/cc/b2/b210714g/

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                GRCHFJ
                Green Chemistry
                Green Chem.
                Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC)
                1463-9262
                1463-9270
                2016
                2016
                : 18
                : 1
                : 53-75
                Article
                10.1039/C5GC02396C
                d74f3c2d-9dc0-441b-8725-b9a9f339d233
                © 2016
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://xlink.rsc.org/?DOI=C5GC02396C

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