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      A project report on the switch from in-class to online tuition in the preparatory course for the knowledge examination for foreign physicians – guidelines for the organization of the online summer semester 2020 at the faculty of medicine of the Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität of Münster Translated title: Ein Projektbericht über die Umstellung von Präsenz- auf Online-Unterricht des Vorbereitungskurses auf die Kenntnisprüfung für ausländische ÄrztInnen – Anleitung für die Gestaltung des Online-Sommersemesters 2020 an der Medizinischen Fakultät der Westfälischen Wilhelms-Universität Münster


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          Introduction: In Germany, foreign physicians are a fixed component of the medical profession. According to the German Medical Licensure Act, physicians having completed their qualification in another country are required to pass a knowledge examination which falls within the competence of examination offices or the regional governments.

          Project outline: The preparatory course consists of 10 modules. On Fridays, individual cases are discussed in small groups and specific examination techniques are trained. On Saturdays, illnesses are simulated by simulated patients. After each encounter, faculty experts, psychologists and peer group members provide the participants with 360° feedback.

          Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the course which had been established 2 years beforehand has now been switched to an online class within one week. Friday units were visualized in power-point presentations and tutorial videos were discussed. On Saturdays, the cases were simulated by simulated patients and transmitted via a telemedicine platform.

          Results: The course could be conducted without interruptions (75 hours of in-class tuition and 75 hours of online tuition). In the oral evaluation the participants criticized telemedicine as a medium for imparting of practical skills. 7/22 (32%) of the participants underwent the knowledge examination and 6/7 (86%) of them passed it (versus 18/19 of the participants of in-class tuition (95%)).

          Discussion: There was a clear preference for in-class tuition. It was noted that the telemedical setting entailed some restrictions. However, the switch to online classes did not affect the pass rate.

          Conclusion: The switch from in-class to online units was feasible. The gained insights were taken into account when conceiving the online semester at our faculty and especially the tuition with the support of simulated patients.


          Einleitung: Ausländische ÄrztInnen sind in Deutschland fester Bestandteil der Ärzteschaft. ÄrztInnen mit einer Ausbildung aus einem Drittstaat müssen laut der Approbationsordnung für Ärzte eine Kenntnisprüfung ablegen, für die die Landesprüfungsämter oder die Bezirksregierungen zuständig sind.

          Projektbeschreibung: Der Vorbereitungskurs besteht aus 10 Modulen. Freitags werden Fälle in Kleingruppen besprochen und fachspezifische Untersuchungstechniken geübt. Samstags werden mit SimulationspatientInnen bestimmte Krankheiten simuliert. Nach der Interaktion bekommen die TeilnehmerInnen ein 360°-Feedback von FachdozentInnen, PsychologInnen und KollegInnen aus der Gruppe.

          Durch die Corona-Pandemie wurde der schon seit 2 Jahren bestehende Kurs innerhalb von einer Woche auf ein Onlineformat umgestellt. Die Freitagseinheiten wurden mit Power-Point visualisiert und Lernvideos besprochen. Samstags wurden die Fälle mit SimulationspatientInnen telemedizinisch simuliert.

          Ergebnisse: Der Kurs konnte ohne Unterbrechung durchgeführt werden (75 Stunden als Präsenz-, 75 Stunden als Online-Unterricht). In der mündlichen Evaluation der TeilnehmerInnen wurde die telemedizinische Vermittlung von praktischen Fertigkeiten bemängelt. 7/22 (32%) der TeilnehmerInnen haben an der Kenntnisprüfung teilgenommen, 6/7 (86%) haben die Prüfung bestanden (in Präsenzunterricht 18/19 (95%)).

          Diskussion: Der Präsenzunterricht wurde eindeutig präferiert. Es wurden Einschränkungen durch das telemedizinische Setting festgestellt. Die Bestehungsquote hat sich durch die Umstellung nicht verändert.

          Schlussfolgerung: Die Umstellung von Präsenzeinheiten auf Online war möglich. Die Erfahrungen flossen in die Entwicklung der Online-Semester an unserer Fakultät ein, insbesondere der Unterricht mit den SimulationspatientInnen.

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          The case for use of entrustable professional activities in undergraduate medical education.

          Many graduate medical education (GME) programs have started to consider and adopt entrustable professional activities (EPAs) in their competency frameworks. Do EPAs also have a place in undergraduate medical education (UME)? In this Perspective article, the authors discuss arguments in favor of the use of EPAs in UME. A competency framework that aligns UME and GME outcome expectations would allow for better integration across the educational continuum. The EPA approach would be consistent with what is known about progressive skill development. The key principles underlying EPAs, workplace learning and trust, are generalizable and would also be applicable to UME learners. Lastly, EPAs could increase transparency in the workplace regarding student abilities and help ensure safe and quality patient care. The authors also outline what UME EPAs might look like, suggesting core, specialty-specific, and elective EPAs related to core clinical residency entry expectations and learner interest. UME EPAs would be defined as essential health care activities with which one would expect to entrust a resident at the beginning of residency to perform without direct supervision. Finally, the authors recommend a refinement and expansion of the entrustment and supervision scale previously developed for GME to better incorporate the supervision expectations for UME learners. They suggest that EPAs could be operationalized for UME if UME-specific EPAs were developed and the entrustment scale were expanded.
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            An Introduction to the Inverted/Flipped Classroom Model in Education and Advanced Training in Medicine and in the Healthcare Professions

            In describing the inverted classroom model (ICM), the following paper is meant to provide an introduction to the subject matter and to serve as a practical guide for those wishing to employ its methods in basic and advanced medical training and education. The ICM is a blended-learning method in which a self-directed learning phase (individual phase) precedes the classroom-instruction phase. During the online phase, factual knowledge is imparted that serves as a basis for the classroom phase. The classroom phase should subsequently be used to assimilate and implement the previously gained knowledge. In contrast, traditional course concepts impart factual knowledge in lectures, for example, or in other face-to-face teaching formats and are followed by the students’ self-instruction in order to assimilate this knowledge. The goal of the ICM is the shift from passive learning to accelerated learning in order to foster learning at cognitively demanding levels such as analysis, synthesis and evaluation. The concurrent increase in production and use of screencasts and educational videos, the Open Educational Resources “movement” and the widespread use of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCS) have contributed to the increased dissemination of the inverted-classroom method. The intention of the present paper is to provide an introduction to the subject matter and simultaneously to offer a short overview of important projects and research results in the field of medical education and other health professions. Furthermore, an outline is given of the advantages and disadvantages of the model as well as its potential benefit to the future of medical education and training.
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              Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency: Curriculum Developer’s Guide.


                Author and article information

                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS J Med Educ
                GMS Journal for Medical Education
                German Medical Science GMS Publishing House
                15 June 2021
                : 38
                : 5
                : Doc88
                [1 ]University Hospital Münster, Department of Cardiology I, Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease, Heart Failure, Münster, Germany
                [2 ]Westfälische Wilhelms-Universität Münster, Institute of medical education, Münster, Germany
                Author notes
                *To whom correspondence should be addressed: Zornitsa Shomanova, University Hospital Münster, Department of Cardiology I, Coronary and Peripheral Vascular Disease, Heart Failure, Albert-Schweitzer-Campus 1, Gebäude A1, D-48149 Münster, Germany, E-mail: Zornitsa.Shomanova@ 123456ukmuenster.de
                zma001484 Doc88 urn:nbn:de:0183-zma0014847
                Copyright © 2021 Shomanova et al.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License. See license information at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                : 29 July 2020
                : 31 March 2021
                : 05 March 2021

                online course,knowledge examination,foreign physicians


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