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      Clinical Features and Outcome of Coronary Artery Aneurysm in Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction Undergoing a Primary Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

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          Abstract

          Background: While coronary artery aneurysm is an uncommon anatomic disorder and has various forms, its clinical features and outcome and its impact on thrombus formation and the no-reflow phenomenon in the clinical setting of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) undergoing primary percutaneous coronary intervention (p-PCI) have not been discussed. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether this anatomic disorder predisposes to a high burden of thrombus formation, and subsequently leads to the no-reflow phenomenon and untoward clinical outcome in patients with AMI undergoing p-PCI. Methods and Results: In our hospital, emergency p-PCI was performed in 924 consecutive patients with AMI between May 1993 and July 2001. Of these 924 patients, 24 patients (2.6%) who had an infarct-related artery (IRA) with aneurysmal dilatation were retrospectively registered and constituted the patient population of this study. Angiographic findings demonstrated that the ectasia type (defined as diffuse dilatation of 50% or more of the length of the IRA) was found most frequently (70%), followed by the fusiform type (20%; defined as a spindle-shaped dilatation in the IRA) and the saccular type (10%; defined as a localized spherical-shaped dilatation in the IRA). The right coronary artery was the most frequently involved vessel (54.2%), followed by the left anterior descending (25.0%) and the left circumflex arteries (20.8%). Coronary angiography revealed that all of these aneurysmal IRA filled with heavy thrombus (indicated as high-burden thrombus formation). The no-reflow phenomenon (defined as ≤TIMI-2 flow) and distal embolization after p-PCI were found in 62.5 and 70.8% of the IRA, respectively. The incidence of cardiogenic shock and the 30-day mortality rate were 25 and 8.3%, respectively. The survival rate was 90.9% (20/22) during a mean follow-up of 19 ± 30 months. Conclusions: While aneurysmal dilatation of an IRA is an uncommon angiographic finding in the clinical setting of AMI, it is frequently associated with high-burden thrombus formation and has a significantly lower incidence of successful reperfusion. However, the long-term survival of these patients is excellent.

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          Most cited references 5

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          Platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibition with coronary stenting for acute myocardial infarction.

          When administered in conjunction with primary coronary stenting for the treatment of acute myocardial infarction, a platelet glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor may provide additional clinical benefit, but data on this combination therapy are limited. We randomly assigned 300 patients with acute myocardial infarction in a double-blind fashion either to abciximab plus stenting (149 patients) or placebo plus stenting (151 patients) before they underwent coronary angiography. Clinical outcomes were evaluated 30 days and 6 months after the procedure. The angiographic patency of the infarct-related vessel and the left ventricular ejection fraction were evaluated at 24 hours and 6 months. At 30 days, the primary end point--a composite of death, reinfarction, or urgent revascularization of the target vessel--had occurred in 6.0 percent of the patients in the abciximab group, as compared with 14.6 percent of those in the placebo group (P=0.01); at 6 months, the corresponding figures were 7.4 percent and 15.9 percent (P=0.02). The better clinical outcomes in the abciximab group were related to the greater frequency of grade 3 coronary flow (according to the classification of the Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction trial) in this group than in the placebo group before the procedure (16.8 percent vs. 5.4 percent, P=0.01), immediately afterward (95.1 percent vs. 86.7 percent, P=0.04), and six months afterward (94.3 percent vs. 82.8 percent, P=0.04). One major bleeding event occurred in the abciximab group (0.7 percent); none occurred in the placebo group. As compared with placebo, early administration of abciximab in patients with acute myocardial infarction improves coronary patency before stenting, the success rate of the stenting procedure, the rate of coronary patency at six months, left ventricular function, and clinical outcomes.
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            Comparison of impact of primary percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty and primary stenting on short-term mortality in patients with cardiogenic shock and evaluation of prognostic determinants.

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              Coronary artery aneurysms: A 25-patient study.

              Coronary artery aneurysm is a rare disorder, characterized by abnormal dilatation of a localized portion or diffuse segments of the coronary artery. We studied clinical demographics, catheterization findings, and clinical outcomes in an Asian patient cohort with documented coronary artery aneurysms. Compared to a Caucasian adult population, our patient cohort had a lower incidence of coronary artery aneurysm (0.25% vs. 2.6%), and more patients with nonobstructive coronary artery aneurysms (70%); age, gender, and coronary distribution were comparable. The initial presentation of myocardial infarction occurred in five patients (5/17, 30%) with nonobstructive coronary artery aneurysms; however, none who were receiving preventive medications consisting of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents subsequently developed myocardial infarction. We conclude that the incidence of coronary artery aneurysms with or without associated significant coronary stenosis seems to be lower in the Asian population. In contrast, the incidence of nonobstructive coronary artery aneurysms is considerably high and should not be thought of as a relatively benign disease entity if not treated with preventive medications. Rheumatoid arthritis-related vasculitis might be a cause of coronary artery aneurysm. Surgical intervention is based on the severity of coronary artery stenosis. The result of medical treatment has been compatible with long-term survival. Cathet. Cardiovasc. Intervent. 48:31-38, 1999. Copyright 1999 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2002
                November 2002
                07 November 2002
                : 98
                : 3
                : 132-140
                Affiliations
                Division of Cardiology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Kaohsiung, Taiwan, ROC
                Article
                66322 Cardiology 2002;98:132–140
                10.1159/000066322
                12417812
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, References: 27, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Cardiac Catheterization and Interventional Cardiology

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