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      Optimization of a combined wet milling process in order to produce poly(vinyl alcohol) stabilized nanosuspension

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          The article reports a wet milling process, where the planetary ball mill was combined with pearl milling technology to reach nanosize range of meloxicam (Mel; 100–500 nm). The main purpose was to increase the dissolution rate and extent of a poorly water-soluble Mel as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as well as to study its permeability across cultured intestinal epithelial cell layers.


          Viscosity of milled dispersion and particle size distribution and zeta potential of Mel were investigated and differential scanning calorimeter and X-ray powder diffractometer were used to analyse the structure of the suspended Mel. Finally in vitro dissolution test and in vitro cell culture studies were made.


          It was found that the ratio of predispersion and pearls 1:1 (w/w) resulted in the most effective grinding system (200-fold particle size reduction in one step) with optimized process parameters, 437 rpm and 43 min. Nanosuspension (1% Mel and 0.5% poly[vinyl alcohol]) as an intermediate product showed a stable system with 2 weeks of holding time. This optimized nanosuspension enhanced the penetration of Mel across cultured intestinal epithelial cell layers without toxic effects.


          The dissolution rate of Mel from the poly(vinyl alcohol) stabilized nanosuspension justified its applicability in the design of innovative per oral dosage form (capsule) in order to ensure/give a rapid analgesia.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Nanosuspensions: a promising drug delivery strategy.

          Nanosuspensions have emerged as a promising strategy for the efficient delivery of hydrophobic drugs because of their versatile features and unique advantages. Techniques such as media milling and high-pressure homogenization have been used commercially for producing nanosuspensions. Recently, the engineering of nanosuspensions employing emulsions and microemulsions as templates has been addressed in the literature. The unique features of nanosuspensions have enabled their use in various dosage forms, including specialized delivery systems such as mucoadhesive hydrogels. Rapid strides have been made in the delivery of nanosuspensions by parenteral, peroral, ocular and pulmonary routes. Currently, efforts are being directed to extending their applications in site-specific drug delivery.
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            Nanonization strategies for poorly water-soluble drugs.

            Poor water solubility for many drugs and drug candidates remains a major obstacle to their development and clinical application. Conventional formulations to improve solubility suffer from low bioavailability and poor pharmacokinetics, with some carriers rendering systemic toxicities (e.g. Cremophor(®) EL). In this review, several major nanonization techniques that seek to overcome these limitations for drug solubilization are presented. Strategies including drug nanocrystals, nanoemulsions and polymeric micelles are reviewed. Finally, perspectives on existing challenges and future opportunities are highlighted. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
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              Pharmaceutical nanocrystals by nanomilling: critical process parameters, particle fracturing and stabilization methods.

              Wet milling is a common technique to produce drug nanocrystals. Stability of the nanocrystals is a critical question, and different kinds of stabilizers, e.g. polymers, celluloses, surfactants and lipids, have been tested for various drugs. Still, the question about how to select the best stabilizer to a certain drug material and also to a selected process is open.

                Author and article information

                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                31 May 2018
                : 12
                : 1567-1580
                [1 ]Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Szeged, Hungary
                [2 ]Institute of Biophysics, Biological Research Centre, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Szeged, Hungary
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Piroska Szabó-Révész, Faculty of Pharmacy, Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and Regulatory Affairs, University of Szeged, Eötvös u 6, Szeged H-6720, Hungary, Tel +36 62 545 572, Fax +36 62 545 571, Email revesz@ 123456pharm.u-szeged.hu
                © 2018 Bartos et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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