+1 Recommend
0 collections
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Effect of Oscillation on Perineal Pressure in Cyclists: Implications for Micro-Trauma

      , MD , , MD, MS, , BS, , MD, , MD, , MD, MPH, , MD, MAS

      Sexual Medicine


      Perineum, Micro-Trauma, Cycling, Saddle

      Read this article at

          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.



          Genital numbness and erectile dysfunction in cyclists may result from repeated perineal impacts on the bicycle saddle (micro-trauma) that occur during routine cycling.


          To evaluate the relationship between oscillation forces and perineal pressures among cyclists in a simulated laboratory setting.


          Participants were fit to a study bicycle to ensure all cyclists had the same torso angle (60 ± 1 degree) and maximum knee angle (150 ± 1 degree). A lever system was used to generate oscillation events of 3 progressively increasing magnitudes. Perineal pressure was continuously measured using a pressure sensor on the bicycle saddle. This process was carried out in each of the following conditions: (1) stationary (not pedaling) with the standard seatpost, (2) pedaling with standard seatpost, (3) stationary with seatpost shock absorber, and (4) pedaling with seatpost shock absorber.


          We compared perineal pressure changes during oscillation events in the stationary and pedaling states, with and without the seatpost shock absorber.


          A total of 39 individuals were recruited (29 men and 10 women). As the amount of oscillation increased from an average of 0.7 g (acceleration due to Earth’s gravity) to 1.3 g, the perineal pressure increased from 10.3% over baseline to 19.4% over baseline. There was a strong linear relationship between the amount of oscillation and increase in pressure ( r 2 = 0.8, P < .001). A seatpost shock absorber decreased the impact of oscillation by 53% in the stationary condition. Men and women absorbed the majority of shock in areas corresponding to pelvic bony landmarks.


          This study represents one of the first characterizations of cycling-associated perineal micro-trauma in a laboratory setting. We found a strong linear relationship between oscillation magnitude and perineal pressure during cycling, which was mitigated by a seatpost shock absorber. The use of shock absorption in bicycle design may reduce perineal micro-trauma and potentially improve cycling-associated perineal numbness and erectile dysfunction.

          Sanford T, Gadzinski AJ, Gaither T, et al. Effect of Oscillation on Perineal Pressure in Cyclists: Implications for Micro-Trauma. Sex Med 2018;6:239–247.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 20

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: not found

          Health benefits of cycling: a systematic review.

          The purpose of this study was to update the evidence on the health benefits of cycling. A systematic review of the literature resulted in 16 cycling-specific studies. Cross-sectional and longitudinal studies showed a clear positive relationship between cycling and cardiorespiratory fitness in youths. Prospective observational studies demonstrated a strong inverse relationship between commuter cycling and all-cause mortality, cancer mortality, and cancer morbidity among middle-aged to elderly subjects. Intervention studies among working-age adults indicated consistent improvements in cardiovascular fitness and some improvements in cardiovascular risk factors due to commuting cycling. Six studies showed a consistent positive dose-response gradient between the amount of cycling and the health benefits. Systematic assessment of the quality of the studies showed most of them to be of moderate to high quality. According to standard criteria used primarily for the assessment of clinical studies, the strength of this evidence was strong for fitness benefits, moderate for benefits in cardiovascular risk factors, and inconclusive for all-cause mortality, coronary heart disease morbidity and mortality, cancer risk, and overweight and obesity. While more intervention research is needed to build a solid knowledge base of the health benefits of cycling, the existing evidence reinforces the current efforts to promote cycling as an important contributor for better population health. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: not found

            Impotence and nerve entrapment in long distance amateur cyclists.

             K V Andersen,  G Bovim (1997)
            To assess the frequency and duration of symptoms suggesting peripheral nerve compression after long distance cycling. A questionnaire based cross sectional study among 260 participants in a Norwegian annual bicycle touring race of 540 km. Thirty-five of 160 responding males (22%) reported symptoms from the innervation area of the pudendal or cavernous nerves. Thirty-three had penile numbness or hypaesthesia after the tour. In 10, the numbness lasted for more than one week. Impotence was reported by 21 (13%) of the males. It lasted for more than one week in 11, and for more than one month in three. Both genital numbness and impotence were correlated with weakness in the hands after the ride, a complaint reported by 32 (19%) of all 169 respondents. Forty-six cyclists (30%) indicated paraesthesia or numbness in the fingers, half of them from the ulnar nerve area only. The frequency of impotence, numbness of the penis, hand weakness and sensory symptoms from the fingers in bicycle sport may be higher than hitherto recognized. It afflicts both experienced cyclists and novices. In some, the complaints may last up to eight months. Besides changing the hand and body position on the bike, restricting the training intensity, and taking ample pauses may also be necessary in prolonged and vigorous bicycle riding to prevent damage to peripheral nerves.
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              The vicious cycling: bicycling related urogenital disorders.

              Bicycle riding is one of the most popular means of transportation, recreation, fitness and sports among millions of people of all ages who ride on road and off road, using a variety of bicycle types. It is also a readily available form of aerobic non-impact exercise with established cardiovascular beneficial effects. Bicycles are also a common source of significant injuries. This review focuses upon the specific bicycling related overuse injuries affecting the genitourinary tract. MEDLINE search of the literature on bicycling and genitourinary disorders was performed using multiple subject headings and additional keywords. The search yielded overall 62 pertinent articles. We focused primarily on the most prevalent related disorders such as pudendal nerve entrapment, erectile dysfunction and infertility. The potential effect of bicycling on serum PSA level was also discussed in depth in view of its recognized clinical importance. Infrequent disorders, which were reported sporadically, were still addressed, despite their rarity, for the comprehensiveness of this review. The reported incidence of bicycling related urogenital symptoms varies considerably. The most common bicycling associated urogenital problems are nerve entrapment syndromes presenting as genitalia numbness, which is reported in 50-91% of the cyclists, followed by erectile dysfunction reported in 13-24%. Other less common symptoms include priapism, penile thrombosis, infertility, hematuria, torsion of spermatic cord, prostatitis, perineal nodular induration and elevated serum PSA, which are reported only sporadically. Urologists should be aware that bicycling is a potential and not an infrequent cause of a variety of urological and andrological disorders caused by overuse injuries affecting the genitourinary system.

                Author and article information

                Sex Med
                Sex Med
                Sexual Medicine
                20 June 2018
                September 2018
                20 June 2018
                : 6
                : 3
                : 239-247
                Department of Urology, University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, USA
                Author notes
                [] Corresponding Author: Thomas Sanford, MD, 10 Center Drive, Room 1-5848, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA. Tel: 301-646 1965 sanfordt@ 123456nih.gov

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                Basic Science

                perineum, micro-trauma, cycling, saddle


                Comment on this article