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      Marine Fish Proteins and Peptides for Cosmeceuticals: A Review

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          Abstract

          Marine fish provide a rich source of bioactive compounds such as proteins and peptides. The bioactive proteins and peptides derived from marine fish have gained enormous interest in nutraceutical, pharmaceutical, and cosmeceutical industries due to their broad spectrum of bioactivities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-aging activities. Recently, the development of cosmeceuticals using marine fish-derived proteins and peptides obtained from chemical or enzymatical hydrolysis of fish processing by-products has increased rapidly owing to their activities in antioxidation and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived collagen has been utilized for the development of cosmeceutical products due to its abilities in skin repair and tissue regeneration. Marine fish-derived peptides have also been utilized for various cosmeceutical applications due to their antioxidant, antimicrobial, and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitory activities. In addition, marine fish-derived proteins and hydrolysates demonstrated efficient anti-photoaging activity. The present review highlights and presents an overview of the current status of the isolation and applications of marine fish-derived proteins and peptides. This review also demonstrates that marine fish-derived proteins and peptides have high potential for biocompatible and effective cosmeceuticals.

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          Oxidative Stress and Antioxidant Defense

          Abstract Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are produced by living organisms as a result of normal cellular metabolism and environmental factors, such as air pollutants or cigarette smoke. ROS are highly reactive molecules and can damage cell structures such as carbohydrates, nucleic acids, lipids, and proteins and alter their functions. The shift in the balance between oxidants and antioxidants in favor of oxidants is termed “oxidative stress.” Regulation of reducing and oxidizing (redox) state is critical for cell viability, activation, proliferation, and organ function. Aerobic organisms have integrated antioxidant systems, which include enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants that are usually effective in blocking harmful effects of ROS. However, in pathological conditions, the antioxidant systems can be overwhelmed. Oxidative stress contributes to many pathological conditions and diseases, including cancer, neurological disorders, atherosclerosis, hypertension, ischemia/perfusion, diabetes, acute respiratory distress syndrome, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and asthma. In this review, we summarize the cellular oxidant and antioxidant systems and discuss the cellular effects and mechanisms of the oxidative stress.
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            Marketed Marine Natural Products in the Pharmaceutical and Cosmeceutical Industries: Tips for Success

            The marine environment harbors a number of macro and micro organisms that have developed unique metabolic abilities to ensure their survival in diverse and hostile habitats, resulting in the biosynthesis of an array of secondary metabolites with specific activities. Several of these metabolites are high-value commercial products for the pharmaceutical and cosmeceutical industries. The aim of this review is to outline the paths of marine natural products discovery and development, with a special focus on the compounds that successfully reached the market and particularly looking at the approaches tackled by the pharmaceutical and cosmetic companies that succeeded in marketing those products. The main challenges faced during marine bioactives discovery and development programs were analyzed and grouped in three categories: biodiversity (accessibility to marine resources and efficient screening), supply and technical (sustainable production of the bioactives and knowledge of the mechanism of action) and market (processes, costs, partnerships and marketing). Tips to surpass these challenges are given in order to improve the market entry success rates of highly promising marine bioactives in the current pipelines, highlighting what can be learned from the successful and unsuccessful stories that can be applied to novel and/or ongoing marine natural products discovery and development programs.
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              Oxidative Stress in Aging Human Skin

              Oxidative stress in skin plays a major role in the aging process. This is true for intrinsic aging and even more for extrinsic aging. Although the results are quite different in dermis and epidermis, extrinsic aging is driven to a large extent by oxidative stress caused by UV irradiation. In this review the overall effects of oxidative stress are discussed as well as the sources of ROS including the mitochondrial ETC, peroxisomal and ER localized proteins, the Fenton reaction, and such enzymes as cyclooxygenases, lipoxygenases, xanthine oxidases, and NADPH oxidases. Furthermore, the defense mechanisms against oxidative stress ranging from enzymes like superoxide dismutases, catalases, peroxiredoxins, and GSH peroxidases to organic compounds such as L-ascorbate, α-tocopherol, beta-carotene, uric acid, CoQ10, and glutathione are described in more detail. In addition the oxidative stress induced modifications caused to proteins, lipids and DNA are discussed. Finally age-related changes of the skin are also a topic of this review. They include a disruption of the epidermal calcium gradient in old skin with an accompanying change in the composition of the cornified envelope. This modified cornified envelope also leads to an altered anti-oxidative capacity and a reduced barrier function of the epidermis.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Mar Drugs
                Mar Drugs
                marinedrugs
                Marine Drugs
                MDPI
                1660-3397
                18 May 2017
                May 2017
                : 15
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Division of Bioengineering, Incheon National University, Incheon 406-772, Korea; venkatjchem@ 123456gmail.com
                [2 ]Department of Preventive Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Prince Sattam Bin Abdulaziz University, Riyadh, Post Box 153, AIKharj 11942, Saudi Arabia; drsanil@ 123456gmail.com
                [3 ]Department of Marine Life Sciences, Korean Maritime and Ocean University, 727 Taejong-ro, Yeongdo-Gu, Busan 49112, Korea
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: sknkim@ 123456pknu.ac.kr (S.-K.K.); msshim@ 123456inu.ac.kr (M.S.S.); Tel.: +82-51-629-7550 (S.-K.K.); +82-32-835-8268 (M.S.S.)
                Article
                marinedrugs-15-00143
                10.3390/md15050143
                5450549
                28524092
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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