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      A Case Series of Persistent SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Immunocompromised Pediatric Patients


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          Diagnosis and management of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients are extremely challenging. These patients can have atypical clinical courses, and there is a paucity of data regarding clinical features, diagnostic findings, and the safety and efficacy of available therapeutic agents used to treat COVID-19 in these patients. In this case series, we report atypical COVID-19 presentations in 4 immunocompromised pediatric patients who were admitted with acute respiratory failure after an initial diagnosis of COVID-19 a few weeks earlier. All patients included in this cohort showed persistent worsening respiratory symptoms for several weeks before hospital presentation. While they manifested common COVID-19 sequelae, they also had rare COVID-19-related pathognomonic and radiographic features developed along their hospital course. Multiple therapeutic agents were used in their COVID-19 management, including corticosteroids, remdesivir, and monoclonal antibodies. All three patients who have received concurrent therapy with remdesivir, hydrocortisone, and monoclonal antibodies survived, and only one patient died as a direct complication of COVID-19 ARDS with secondary pulmonary mucormycosis. Our outcomes suggest the potential benefit of remdesivir use in combination with hydrocortisone and monoclonal antibodies in the management of severe COVID-19 ARDS in this group, as well as the importance of close surveillance and early administration of broad empirical antimicrobial and antifungal coverage if clinically indicated in this high-risk population.

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          Most cited references18

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          Pulmonary Vascular Endothelialitis, Thrombosis, and Angiogenesis in Covid-19

          Progressive respiratory failure is the primary cause of death in the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. Despite widespread interest in the pathophysiology of the disease, relatively little is known about the associated morphologic and molecular changes in the peripheral lung of patients who die from Covid-19.
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            Persistent Symptoms in Patients After Acute COVID-19

            This case series describes COVID-19 symptoms persisting a mean of 60 days after onset among Italian patients previously discharged from COVID-19 hospitalization.
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              Radiological findings from 81 patients with COVID-19 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study

              Summary Background A cluster of patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pneumonia caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) were successively reported in Wuhan, China. We aimed to describe the CT findings across different timepoints throughout the disease course. Methods Patients with COVID-19 pneumonia (confirmed by next-generation sequencing or RT-PCR) who were admitted to one of two hospitals in Wuhan and who underwent serial chest CT scans were retrospectively enrolled. Patients were grouped on the basis of the interval between symptom onset and the first CT scan: group 1 (subclinical patients; scans done before symptom onset), group 2 (scans done ≤1 week after symptom onset), group 3 (>1 week to 2 weeks), and group 4 (>2 weeks to 3 weeks). Imaging features and their distribution were analysed and compared across the four groups. Findings 81 patients admitted to hospital between Dec 20, 2019, and Jan 23, 2020, were retrospectively enrolled. The cohort included 42 (52%) men and 39 (48%) women, and the mean age was 49·5 years (SD 11·0). The mean number of involved lung segments was 10·5 (SD 6·4) overall, 2·8 (3·3) in group 1, 11·1 (5·4) in group 2, 13·0 (5·7) in group 3, and 12·1 (5·9) in group 4. The predominant pattern of abnormality observed was bilateral (64 [79%] patients), peripheral (44 [54%]), ill-defined (66 [81%]), and ground-glass opacification (53 [65%]), mainly involving the right lower lobes (225 [27%] of 849 affected segments). In group 1 (n=15), the predominant pattern was unilateral (nine [60%]) and multifocal (eight [53%]) ground-glass opacities (14 [93%]). Lesions quickly evolved to bilateral (19 [90%]), diffuse (11 [52%]) ground-glass opacity predominance (17 [81%]) in group 2 (n=21). Thereafter, the prevalence of ground-glass opacities continued to decrease (17 [57%] of 30 patients in group 3, and five [33%] of 15 in group 4), and consolidation and mixed patterns became more frequent (12 [40%] in group 3, eight [53%] in group 4). Interpretation COVID-19 pneumonia manifests with chest CT imaging abnormalities, even in asymptomatic patients, with rapid evolution from focal unilateral to diffuse bilateral ground-glass opacities that progressed to or co-existed with consolidations within 1–3 weeks. Combining assessment of imaging features with clinical and laboratory findings could facilitate early diagnosis of COVID-19 pneumonia. Funding None.

                Author and article information

                Case Rep Crit Care
                Case Rep Crit Care
                Case Reports in Critical Care
                16 May 2023
                : 2023
                : 1699770
                1Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pediatric Critical Care Medicine, Indiana University School of Medicine, USA
                2Department of Pediatrics, Division of Pulmonology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, USA
                3Department of Critical Care Medicine, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA
                4Department of Pathology, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, USA
                5Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, USA
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Mehmet Doganay

                Author information
                Copyright © 2023 Mohamed Y. Ahmed et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                : 17 November 2022
                : 27 March 2023
                : 23 April 2023
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