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      Clinical photoacoustic imaging of cancer

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          Photoacoustic imaging is a hybrid technique that shines laser light on tissue and measures optically induced ultrasound signal. There is growing interest in the clinical community over this new technique and its possible clinical applications. One of the most prominent features of photoacoustic imaging is its ability to characterize tissue, leveraging differences in the optical absorption of underlying tissue components such as hemoglobin, lipids, melanin, collagen and water among many others. In this review, the state-of-the-art photoacoustic imaging techniques and some of the key outcomes pertaining to different cancer applications in the clinic are presented.

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          Most cited references 74

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          Cancer's molecular sweet tooth and the Warburg effect.

          More than 80 years ago, the renowned biochemist Otto Warburg described how cancer cells avidly consume glucose and produce lactic acid under aerobic conditions. Recent studies arguing that cancer cells benefit from this phenomenon, termed the Warburg effect, have renewed discussions about its exact role as cause, correlate, or facilitator of cancer. Molecular advances in this area may reveal tactics to exploit the cancer cell's "sweet tooth" for cancer therapy.
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            Breast Cancer Screening for Women at Average Risk: 2015 Guideline Update From the American Cancer Society.

            Breast cancer is a leading cause of premature mortality among US women. Early detection has been shown to be associated with reduced breast cancer morbidity and mortality.
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              Contrast agents for molecular photoacoustic imaging.

              Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an emerging tool that bridges the traditional depth limits of ballistic optical imaging and the resolution limits of diffuse optical imaging. Using the acoustic waves generated in response to the absorption of pulsed laser light, it provides noninvasive images of absorbed optical energy density at depths of several centimeters with a resolution of ∼100 μm. This versatile and scalable imaging modality has now shown potential for molecular imaging, which enables visualization of biological processes with systemically introduced contrast agents. Understanding the relative merits of the vast range of contrast agents available, from small-molecule dyes to gold and carbon nanostructures to liposome encapsulations, is a considerable challenge. Here we critically review the physical, chemical and biochemical characteristics of the existing photoacoustic contrast agents, highlighting key applications and present challenges for molecular PAI.

                Author and article information

                Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine
                October 2016
                30 August 2016
                : 35
                : 4
                : 267-280
                Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence to: Juergen K. Willmann, MD, Department of Radiology, Molecular Imaging Program at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, 300 Pasteur Drive, Room H1307, Stanford, CA 94305-5621, USA Tel. +1-650-725-1812 Fax. +1-650-723-1909 E-mail: willmann@ 123456stanford.edu
                Copyright © 2016 Korean Society of Ultrasound in Medicine (KSUM)

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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