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      Tumor growth activity of duloxetine in Ehrlich carcinoma in mice

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          The objective of this study was to analyze whether duloxetine influences tumor growth in Ehrlich carcinoma. The mice were administered 5 or 30 mg/kg of duloxetine or saline solution. All animals were inoculated with tumor cells. The tumor progression was evaluated by body weight, abdominal circumference, ascites volume and tumor cell count. The effect of duloxetine on immune response was evaluated by lymphoid cells, nitric oxide (NO) production, arginase and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the spleen immunophenotyping.


          There was no difference between the groups regarding weight, abdominal circumference, ascites volume and number of tumor cells. Duloxetine increased the cells of the inguinal lymph node. There was no difference in the number of cells in the bone marrow and spleen. Ascites SOD activity was greater in Duloxetine groups. There were no differences in the levels of NO, nitrite, and arginase. The number of antibody for CD3 (CD3+), CD4+, CD8+ and CD28+ cells was lower in the duloxetine groups. In conclusion, duloxetine has no direct effect on tumor growth and does not alter immunity. The drug increased the SOD that fights free radicals and led the migration of lymphocytes, suggesting that duloxetine could be used in tumor-bearing individuals.

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          The online version of this article (10.1186/s13104-018-3655-4) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Natural innate and adaptive immunity to cancer.

          The immune system can identify and destroy nascent tumor cells in a process termed cancer immunosurveillance, which functions as an important defense against cancer. Recently, data obtained from numerous investigations in mouse models of cancer and in humans with cancer offer compelling evidence that particular innate and adaptive immune cell types, effector molecules, and pathways can sometimes collectively function as extrinsic tumor-suppressor mechanisms. However, the immune system can also promote tumor progression. Together, the dual host-protective and tumor-promoting actions of immunity are referred to as cancer immunoediting. In this review, we discuss the current experimental and human clinical data supporting a cancer immunoediting process that provide the fundamental basis for further study of immunity to cancer and for the rational design of immunotherapies against cancer.
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            Superoxide dismutase as a target for the selective killing of cancer cells.

            Superoxide dismutases (SOD) are essential enzymes that eliminate superoxide radical (O2-) and thus protect cells from damage induced by free radicals. The active O2- production and low SOD activity in cancer cells may render the malignant cells highly dependent on SOD for survival and sensitive to inhibition of SOD. Here we report that certain oestrogen derivatives selectively kill human leukaemia cells but not normal lymphocytes. Using complementary DNA microarray and biochemical approaches, we identify SOD as a target of this drug action and show that chemical modifications at the 2-carbon (2-OH, 2-OCH3) of the derivatives are essential for SOD inhibition and for apoptosis induction. Inhibition of SOD causes accumulation of cellular O2- and leads to free-radical-mediated damage to mitochondrial membranes, the release of cytochrome c from mitochondria and apoptosis of the cancer cells. Our results indicate that targeting SOD may be a promising approach to the selective killing of cancer cells, and that mechanism-based combinations of SOD inhibitors with free-radical-producing agents may have clinical applications.
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              Arginine, nitric oxide, carbon monoxide, and endothelial function in severe malaria.

              Parasiticidal therapy of severe falciparum malaria improves outcome, but up to 30% of these patients die despite best therapy. Nitric oxide is protective against severe disease, and both nitric oxide and arginine (the substrate for nitric oxide synthase) are low in clinical malaria. Parasitized red blood cell interactions with endothelium are important in the pathophysiology of malaria. This review describes new information regarding nitric oxide, arginine, carbon monoxide, and endothelial function in malaria. Low arginine, low nitric oxide production, and endothelial dysfunction are common in severe malaria. The degree of hypoargininemia and endothelial dysfunction (measured by reactive hyperemia-peripheral artery tonometry) is proportional to parasite burden and severity of illness. Plasma arginase (an enzyme that catabolizes arginine) is elevated in severe malaria. Administering arginine intravenously reverses hypoargininemia and endothelial dysfunction. The cause(s) of hypoargininemia in malaria is unknown. Carbon monoxide (which shares certain functional properties with nitric oxide) protects against cerebral malaria in mice. Replenishment of arginine and restoration of nitric oxide production in clinical malaria should diminish parasitized red blood cells adherence to endothelium and reduce the sequelae of these interactions (e.g. cerebral malaria). Arginine therapy given in addition to conventional antimalaria treatment may prove to be beneficial in severe malaria.

                Author and article information

                55 11 55764848 ,
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Res Notes
                BMC Research Notes
                BioMed Central (London )
                31 July 2018
                31 July 2018
                : 11
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2165 7632, GRID grid.411204.2, Universidade Federal do Maranhão, ; São Luís, Brazil
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0514 7202, GRID grid.411249.b, Universidade Federal de São Paulo, ; Rua Três de Maio 61/51, Vila Clementino, São Paulo, Brazil
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Funded by: Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq)
                Award ID: 305608/2015-0
                Award Recipient :
                Research Note
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                © The Author(s) 2018


                cancer, duloxetine, tumor growth


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