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      Safety of an Oncolytic Myxoma Virus in Dogs with Soft Tissue Sarcoma

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          Abstract

          Many oncolytic viruses that are efficacious in murine cancer models are ineffective in humans. The outcomes of oncolytic virus treatment in dogs with spontaneous tumors may better predict human cancer response and improve treatment options for dogs with cancer. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the safety of treatment with myxoma virus lacking the serp2 gene (MYXVΔserp2) and determine its immunogenicity in dogs. To achieve these objectives, dogs with spontaneous soft tissue sarcomas were treated with MYXVΔserp2 intratumorally ( n = 5) or post-operatively ( n = 5). In dogs treated intratumorally, clinical scores were recorded and tumor biopsies and swabs (from the mouth and virus injection site) were analyzed for viral DNA at multiple time-points. In all dogs, blood, urine, and feces were frequently collected to evaluate organ function, virus distribution, and immune response. No detrimental effects of MYXVΔserp2 treatment were observed in any canine cancer patients. No clinically significant changes in complete blood profiles, serum chemistry analyses, or urinalyses were measured. Viral DNA was isolated from one tumor swab, but viral dissemination was not observed. Anti-MYXV antibodies were occasionally detected. These findings provide needed safety information to advance clinical trials using MYXVΔserp2 to treat patients with cancer.

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          Local and distant immunity induced by intralesional vaccination with an oncolytic herpes virus encoding GM-CSF in patients with stage IIIc and IV melanoma.

          An oncolytic herpes simplex virus engineered to replicate selectively in tumor cells and to express granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GMCSF) was tested as a direct intralesional vaccination in melanoma patients. The work reported herein was performed to better characterize the effect of vaccination on local and distant antitumor immunity. Metastatic melanoma patients with accessible lesions were enrolled in a multicenter 50-patient phase II clinical trial of an oncolytic herpesvirus encoding GM-CSF (Oncovex(GM-CSF)). An initial priming dose of 10(6) pfu vaccine was given by intratumoral injection, followed by 10(8) pfu every 2 weeks to 24 total doses. Peripheral blood and tumor tissue were collected for analysis of effector T cells, CD4(+)FoxP3(+) regulatory T cells (Treg), CD8(+)FoxP3(+) suppressor T cells (Ts), and myeloid-derived suppressive cells (MDSC). Phenotypic analysis of T cells derived from tumor samples suggested distinct differences from peripheral blood T cells. There was an increase in melanomaassociated antigen recognized by T cells (MART-1)-specific T cells in tumors undergoing regression after vaccination compared with T cells derived from melanoma patients not treated with vaccine. There was also a significant decrease in Treg and Ts cells in injected lesions compared with noninjected lesions in the same and different melanoma patients. Similarly MDSC were increased in melanoma lesions but underwent a significant decrease only in vaccinated lesions. Melanoma patients present with elevated levels of Tregs, Ts, and MDSC within established tumors. Direct injection of Oncovex(GM-CSF) induces local and systemic antigen-specific T cell responses and decreases Treg, Ts, and MDSC in patients exhibiting therapeutic responses.
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            The formation and function of extracellular enveloped vaccinia virus.

            Vaccinia virus produces four different types of virion from each infected cell called intracellular mature virus (IMV), intracellular enveloped virus (IEV), cell-associated enveloped virus (CEV) and extracellular enveloped virus (EEV). These virions have different abundance, structure, location and roles in the virus life-cycle. Here, the formation and function of these virions are considered with emphasis on the EEV form and its precursors, IEV and CEV. IMV is the most abundant form of virus and is retained in cells until lysis; it is a robust, stable virion and is well suited to transmit infection between hosts. IEV is formed by wrapping of IMV with intracellular membranes, and is an intermediate between IMV and CEV/EEV that enables efficient virus dissemination to the cell surface on microtubules. CEV induces the formation of actin tails that drive CEV particles away from the cell and is important for cell-to-cell spread. Lastly, EEV mediates the long-range dissemination of virus in cell culture and, probably, in vivo. Seven virus-encoded proteins have been identified that are components of IEV, and five of them are present in CEV or EEV. The roles of these proteins in virus morphogenesis and dissemination, and as targets for neutralizing antibody are reviewed. The production of several different virus particles in the VV replication cycle represents a coordinated strategy to exploit cell biology to promote virus spread and to aid virus evasion of antibody and complement.
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              A phase 1 trial of oncolytic HSV-1, G207, given in combination with radiation for recurrent GBM demonstrates safety and radiographic responses.

              G207, a mutant herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1, is safe when inoculated into recurrent malignant glioma. We conducted a phase 1 trial of G207 to demonstrate the safety of stereotactic intratumoral administration when given 24 hours prior to a single 5 Gy radiation dose in patients with recurrent malignant glioma. Nine patients with progressive, recurrent malignant glioma despite standard therapy were included. Patients received one dose of G207 stereotactically inoculated into the multiple sites of the enhancing tumor margin and were then treated focally with 5 Gy radiation. Treatment was well tolerated, and no patient developed HSV encephalitis. The median interval between initial diagnosis and G207 inoculation was 18 months (mean: 23 months; range: 11-51 months). Six of the nine patients had stable disease or partial response for at least one time point. Three instances of marked radiographic response to treatment occurred. The median survival time from G207 inoculation until death was 7.5 months (95% confidence interval: 3.0-12.7). In conclusion, this study showed the safety and the potential for clinical response of single-dose oncolytic HSV therapy augmented with radiation in the treatment of malignant glioma patients. Additional studies with oncolytic HSV such as G207 in the treatment of human glioma are recommended.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Viruses
                Viruses
                viruses
                Viruses
                MDPI
                1999-4915
                28 July 2018
                August 2018
                : 10
                : 8
                : 398
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA
                [2 ]Department of Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA; Kristen.Weishaar@ 123456colostate.edu (K.M.W.); Bernard.Seguin@ 123456colostate.edu (B.S.)
                [3 ]Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratories, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO 80523, USA; Barb.Powers@ 123456colostate.edu
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: amy.macneill@ 123456colostate.edu ; Tel.: +1-970-297-5112
                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1690-3787
                Article
                viruses-10-00398
                10.3390/v10080398
                6115854
                30060548
                d7a1f6ec-c28e-49c2-907f-5715361cb388
                © 2018 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                History
                : 16 July 2018
                : 27 July 2018
                Categories
                Article

                Microbiology & Virology
                oncolytic poxvirus,myxoma virus,sarcoma,canine
                Microbiology & Virology
                oncolytic poxvirus, myxoma virus, sarcoma, canine

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