Vasopressin regulates water excretion, in part, by controlling the abundances of the water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) protein and regulatory proteins in the renal collecting duct. To determine whether vasopressin-induced alterations in protein abundance result from modulation of protein production, protein degradation, or both, we used protein mass spectrometry with dynamic stable isotope labeling in cell culture to achieve a proteome-wide determination of protein half-lives and relative translation rates in mpkCCD cells. Measurements were made at steady state in the absence or presence of the vasopressin analog, desmopressin (dDAVP). Desmopressin altered the translation rate rather than the stability of most responding proteins, but it significantly increased both the translation rate and the half-life of AQP2. In addition, proteins associated with vasopressin action, including Mal2, Akap12, gelsolin, myosin light chain kinase, annexin-2, and Hsp70, manifested altered translation rates. Interestingly, desmopressin increased the translation of seven glutathione S-transferase proteins and enhanced protein S-glutathionylation, uncovering a previously unexplored vasopressin-induced post-translational modification. Additional bioinformatic analysis of the mpkCCD proteome indicated a correlation between protein function and protein half-life. In particular, processes that are rapidly regulated, such as transcription, endocytosis, cell cycle regulation, and ubiquitylation are associated with proteins with especially short half-lives. These data extend our understanding of the mechanisms underlying vasopressin signaling and provide a broad resource for additional investigation of collecting duct function (http://helixweb.nih.gov/ESBL/Database/ProteinHalfLives/index.html).